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Experimental Investigations on Engine-Out Emissions Sensitivity to Fuel Injection Pressure of a High-Performance DISI Single Cylinder Engine

Ferrari S.p.A.-Vincenzo Rossi, Nicola Silvestri, Massimo Medda
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In recent times, complying with increasingly stringent emission regulations has become ever more challenging than before. While an efficient after-treatment system, that includes a gasoline particulate filter, enables compliance with legislation requirements, lowering engine-out emissions by improving the combustion system must be considered as a crucial advantage for both pollutants emission control and performance. In this respect, high-performance enabling contents such as relatively large displacement, flow-capacity oriented intake ports and a limited stroke-to-bore ratio have significant drawbacks on the charge motion quality and, consequently, on mixture formation and homogeneity. As a countermeasure, fuel injection system components, as well as control strategies, need to be substantially improved. The increase of fuel injection pressure, coupled with optimized injection timing and splitting, has proven to be effective in reducing emissions, especially with regard to particulate matter. This paper provides results of an experimental study investigating the effect of different fuel injection strategies on engine-out emissions, with special emphasis on the influence of very high fuel injection pressures (up to 50 MPa) on particulate matter. A multi-hole inwardly-opening fuel…
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A Methodology for Modeling the Cat-Heating Transient Phase in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

Ferrari S.p.A.-Francesco Pulvirenti, Matteo Cucchi, Vincenzo Rossi
Politecnico di Torino-Federico Millo, Luciano Rolando, Alessandro Zanelli
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the modeling of the transient phase of catalyst heating on a high-performance turbocharged spark ignition engine with the aim to accurately predict the exhaust thermal energy available at the catalyst inlet and to provide a “virtual test rig” to assess different design and calibration options.The entire transient phase, starting from the engine cranking until the catalyst warm-up is completed, was taken into account in the simulation, and the model was validated using a wide data-set of experimental tests.The first step of the modeling activity was the combustion analysis during the transient phase: the burn rate was evaluated on the basis of experimental in-cylinder pressure data, considering both cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder variations.Then, as far as the exhaust temperatures are concerned, a detailed model of the thermocouples was implemented to replicate the physical behavior of the sensors during the warm-up and to compare the simulated temperatures with the measured ones.Finally, a complete analysis of the energy balance during the transient was carried out: the thermal power available to the catalyst inlet was obtained from…
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Cold Start Thermal Management with Electrically Heated Catalyst: A Way to Lower Fuel Consumption

EMITEC G.m.b.H.-Manuel Presti, Lorenzo Pace
Ferrari Auto Spa-Luca Poggio, Vincenzo Rossi
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
Recent engine development has been mainly driven by increased specific volumetric power and especially by fuel consumption minimization. On the other hand the stringent emission limits require a very fast cold start that can be reached only using tailored catalyst heating strategy.This kind of thermal management is widely used by engine manufactures although it leads to increased fuel consumption. This fuel penalty is usually higher for high power output engines that have a very low load during emission certification cycle leading to very low exhaust gas temperature and, consequently, the need of additional energy to increase the exhaust gas temperature is high.An alternative way to reach a fast light off minimizing fuel consumption increase is the use of an Electrical Heated Catalyst (EHC) that uses mechanical energy from the engine to generate the electrical energy to heat up the catalyst. Following this thermal management strategy the energy input can be tailored according to the component need and the energy loss in the system can be minimized. Moreover, the efficiency of such systems can be further…
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Benchmark Comparison of Commercially Available Systems for Particle Number Measurement

Ferrari Auto Spa-Luca Poggio, Fabio Bedogni, Vincenzo Rossi, Luca Stronati
University of Bologna-Nicolo Cavina
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
Measurement of particle number was introduced in the Euro 5/6 light duty vehicle emissions regulation. Due to the complex nature of combustion exhaust particles, and to transportation, transformation and deposition mechanisms, such type of measurement is particularly complex, and regression analysis is commonly used for the comparison of different measurement systems.This paper compares various commercial instruments, developing a correlation analysis focused on PN (Particle Number) measurement, and isolating the factors that mainly influence each measuring method. In particular, the experimental activity has been conducted to allow critical comparisons between measurement techniques that are imposed by current regulations and instruments that can be used also on the test cell. The paper presents the main results obtained by analyzing instruments based on different physical principles, and the effects of different sampling locations and different operating parameters.The main instruments that have been critically analyzed during this project are: Horiba MEXA 2000 SPCS Particle Counter installed on a CVS tunnel; AVL APC 489 installed directly on the exhaust gas flow; AVL Smart Sample 478 GEM 140 (Mini CVS tunnel)…
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Backpressure Optimized Metal Supported Close Coupled PE Catalyst - First Application on a Maserati Powertrain

ArvinMeritor-Mathias Holzinger
EMITEC GmbH-Lorenzo Pace, Manuel Presti
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Future stringent emission limits both in the European Community and USA require continuously increased conversion efficiency of exhaust after-treatment systems.Besides the obvious targets of fastest light-off performance, overall conversion efficiency and durability, catalytic converters for maximum output engines require highly optimized flow properties as well, in order to create minimum exhaust backpressure for low fuel consumption.This work deals with the design, development and serial introduction of a close coupled main catalyst system using the innovative technology of Perforated Foils (PE).By means of PE-technology, channel-to-channel gas mixing within the metal substrate could be achieved leading to dramatically reduced backpressure values compared with the conventional design.Due to the highly improved flow properties of the advanced metal substrate, a compact converter could be designed taking into account the demanding packaging constraints in a modern V8 engine compartment.The present paper consists of numerical simulations, flow bench and engine test bench measurements carried out to assess emission performance, backpressure advantage and engine power output increase of a close-coupled single brick system compliant with LEV-II and EU4 emission limits.
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