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New VM R750 Engine Family: A Different Approach to Reach the Emission Limit

Emitec G.m.b.H.-Lorenzo Pace, Manuel Presti
VM Motori-Emilio Bertoni, Alessandro Mazza, Carlo Ricci
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Emission legislation for Off Road Engines is forcing the industry to review the engine design, introducing state of the art technology for many components and tailored exhaust gas after treatment architectures. Particulate matter reduction is a crucial issue to be addressed having an influence on overall engine performance and cost. At the present stage there is not a unilateral solution in the industry, as some manufacturers use a combination of very high fuel injection pressure and very efficient DOC, while others rely on the automotive derived DPF technology with active regeneration or SCR-only technology to reach EU Stage IV and US Tier4f. Considering the pros and cons of each solution, VM Motori decided to adopt an innovative solution consisting in a DOC followed by a partial-flow filter PM-Metalit® for the R750 Engine family. The advantages of this solution will be discussed in this paper along with the application work that has been carried over to reach the emission limit. A short overview of the PM-Metalit technology will be given together with a comprehensive explanation of…
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Cold Start Thermal Management with Electrically Heated Catalyst: A Way to Lower Fuel Consumption

EMITEC G.m.b.H.-Manuel Presti, Lorenzo Pace
Ferrari Auto Spa-Luca Poggio, Vincenzo Rossi
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
Recent engine development has been mainly driven by increased specific volumetric power and especially by fuel consumption minimization. On the other hand the stringent emission limits require a very fast cold start that can be reached only using tailored catalyst heating strategy.This kind of thermal management is widely used by engine manufactures although it leads to increased fuel consumption. This fuel penalty is usually higher for high power output engines that have a very low load during emission certification cycle leading to very low exhaust gas temperature and, consequently, the need of additional energy to increase the exhaust gas temperature is high.An alternative way to reach a fast light off minimizing fuel consumption increase is the use of an Electrical Heated Catalyst (EHC) that uses mechanical energy from the engine to generate the electrical energy to heat up the catalyst. Following this thermal management strategy the energy input can be tailored according to the component need and the energy loss in the system can be minimized. Moreover, the efficiency of such systems can be further…
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An Alternative Way to Reduce Fuel Consumption During Cold Start: The Electrically Heated Catalyst

EMITEC G.m.b.H-Lorenzo Pace, Manuel Presti
Published 2011-09-11 by SAE International in United States
It is well known that the optimal management of cold start is crucial to fulfill present and future emission legislation. During past years the catalytic converter has left its original under floor position to get increasingly closer to the engine in order to exploit higher exhaust gas temperature. Simultaneously, the exhaust gas temperature is becoming significantly lower, both in gasoline engines due to the extensive use of turbo charging, and in diesel engines thanks to very high combustion efficiency and in some cases the use of two stage turbo charging. A well established way to reach the catalyst light-off temperature fast enough to fulfill emission limits consists of artificially increasing the exhaust gas temperature. This has the drawback of a higher fuel consumption which conflicts with the tight CO2 targets now required of the OEMs. This paper describes an alternative way to warm up the catalytic converter in a fast and efficient manner using the electrical heated catalyst (EHC) with only minor increases of fuel consumption. Additionally, the application of the electrical heated catalyst is…
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Vehicle Mass Lightening by Design of Light-weight Structured Substrates for Catalytic Converters

EMITEC GmbH-Manuel Presti, Lorenzo Pace , Wilfried Mueller, Olaf Witte-Merl
Published 2011-06-09 by SAE International in United States
The clear objective of future powertrain development is strongly characterized by lowest emission impact and minimum overall system cost penalty to the customer. In the past decades emission impact has been primarily related to both optimization of combustion process and exhaust after-treatment system efficiency. Nowadays, weight reduction is one of the main objectives for vehicular applications, considering the related improvements both in fuel consumption (i.e. CO2 production) and engine-out emissions. The state of the art of catalytic converter systems for automotive ZEV-oriented applications has yet to be introduces into mass production.This paper investigates the successful application o metallic turbulent structures for catalytic converters along with innovative packaging considerations, such as structured outer mantle, which lead to significant weight reductions, exhaust backpressure minimization and improved overall emission conversion efficiency. Virtual engineering, such as FEA and CFD simulation, has been used to optimize the substrate (matrix and mantle) and successively a comprehensive test procedure has been carried out to validate the innovative substrate architecture.
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Changing the Substrate Technology to meet Future Emission Limits

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

EMITEC GmbH-Lorenzo Pace, Manuel Presti
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1550
Published 2010-05-05 by SAE International in United States
Future stringent emission legislation will require high efficient catalytical systems. Along with engine out emission reduction and advanced wash coat solution the substrate technology will play a key role in order to keep system costs as low as possible.The development of metallic substrates over the past few years has shown that turbulent-like substrates increase specific catalytic efficiency. This has made it possible to enhance overall performance for a specific catalytic volume or reduce the volume while keeping catalytic efficiency constant.This paper focuses on the emission efficiency of standard, TS (Transversal Structure) and LS (Longitudinal Structure) metallic substrates. In a first measurement program, standard TS and LS substrates have been compared using a 150cc 4 Stroke engine in dynamic (ECE R40) conditions. In a second test standard and LS substrate have been tested.Both TS and LS technologies show advantage compared to standard technology but have different application fields: TS is a cost effective solution for next emission limits while LS is a possible solution for future stringent emission limits.
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Pre-Turbocharger-Catalyst - Catalytic Performances on an Euro V Type Diesel Engine and Robust Design Development

Emitec-Roman Konieczny, Wilfried Müller, Bob Cherington, Manuel Presti, François Jayat
Ford of Europe-Patrick R. Murphy
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Future emission legislation and new diesel engine technology tighten the requirements for modern diesel vehicle exhaust after-treatment systems. In particular, the oxidation catalyst system requires more efficiency to treat increasing raw emissions of HC and CO at low exhaust gas temperatures resulting from advanced combustion processes. This represents a big challenge for all developers today where the cost of raw materials continues to rise.Splitting the oxidation catalyst volume into two parts and mounting a very small part in front of a turbocharger on Euro III or Euro IV Diesel engines has been proved very efficient: Light off and maximum pollutant conversion rates were improved. New results gained with Pre Turbocharger Catalyst (PTC) on a Euro V type diesel engine are confirming previous observations.The complete after-treatment system of today's vehicles should be designed and developed for the whole life of the vehicle. Due to its position in front of the turbine any failure of the PTC, in either the metal substrate or of the coating, would result in particularly severe consequences due to turbine damage and/or…
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Turbulent Flow Metal Substrates: A Way to Address Cold Start CO Emissions and to Optimize Catalyst Loading

EMITEC GmbH-Manuel Presti, Lorenzo Pace
Umicore AG & Co KG-Gerardo Carelli, Paul Spurk
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Modern Diesel Engines equipped with Common-Rail Direct Injection and EGR are characterized by an increasingly high combustion efficiency. Consequently the exhaust gas temperature, especially during a cold start, is significantly reduced compared to typical values measured in previous engine generations. This leads to a potential problem with CO emission limit compliance. The present paper deals with an experimental investigation of turbulent-flow metal substrates, carried out on a vehicle roller bench using a production 1.3 Liter diesel engine equipped passenger car. The tested metal supported catalysts proved to yield extremely high conversion rates both during cold start and in warm operation phase. The improved mass transfer efficiency of the advanced metal substrates is related on one hand to the optimized coating technology and, on the other hand, to the enhanced flow performance in the single converter channels which is caused by structured metal foils. Additionally different cost saving scenarios have been analyzed by means of both catalyst volume reduction and decreased PGM loading.
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Innovative metal supported catalysts for EU V Diesel Engines

Emitec G.m.b.H-Manuel Presti, Lorenzo Pace
Umicore AG & Co KG-Gerardo Carelli, Paul Spurk, Markus Kögel
Published 2005-09-11 by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche in Italy
Future stringent emission levels for NOx and PM will lead to the introduction of innovative combustion processes for diesel engines, such as premixed combustion, with the results to enhance the engine out emission of HC and CO. Therefore very efficient oxidation catalyst will be needed to face this possible issue. This paper deals with the optimization of a EU IV exhaust system by means of innovative metal supported catalyst, as for example the Pre Turbo Catalyst and the Hybrid Catalyst in combination with dedicated catalyst coatings. Moreover a base study over the use of PM-Filter Catalyst has been made, to show the efficiency of such a device with EU IV engine calibration. The second part of the paper deals with the turbulent like structured foils substrates to have an even more efficient diesel oxidation catalyst with very high volumetric efficiency.
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Optimisation Development of Advanced Exhaust Gas After-treatment Systems for Automotive Applications

Emitec GmbH-Manuel Presti, Lorenzo Pace
Published 2005-05-11 by SAE International in United States
Future emission legislation can be met through substantial improvement in the effectiveness of the exhaust gas after-treatment system, the engine and the engine management system. For the catalytic converter, differentiation is necessary between the cold start behavior and the effectiveness at operating temperature. To be catalytically effective, a converter must be heated by the exhaust gas up to its light-off temperature. The major influential parameter for the light-off still is the supply of heat from the exhaust gas. Modification of the cold start calibration of engine control such as spark retard or increased idle speed can increase the temperature level of the exhaust gas. One further possibility is represented by a reduction of the critical mass ahead of the catalyst (exhaust manifold and pipe). Nevertheless the best measure to obtain optimal cold start effectiveness still seems to be locating the converter close to the engine. Depending on the individual application, limited installation space may only be available. Therefore the design target is a low volume, high effective catalyst with optimized thermodynamic properties to obtain maximum…
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Metal Supported Particulate Matter-Cat, A Low Impact and Cost Effective Solution for a 1.3 Euro IV Diesel Engine

EMITEC GmbH-Lorenzo Pace, Roman Konieczny, Manuel Presti
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Modern Diesel Engines equipped with Common-Rail Direct Injection, EGR and optimized combustion technology have been proven to reduce dramatically engine raw emissions both in terms of Nox and Particulate Matter.As a matter of fact the recently introduced FIAT 1.3 JTD 4 Cylinder Engine achieves Euro 4 limits with aid of conventional 2-way oxidation catalyst. Nevertheless some special applications, such as platforms with relatively higher gross vehicle weight possibly yield to PM-related issues.The present paper deals with the development program carried out to design a cost effective aftertreatment solution in order to address particulate matter tailpipe emissions. The major constraint of this development program was the extremely challenging packaging conditions and the absolute demand to avoid any major impact on the system design.The flow-through metal supported PM Filter Catalyst has been extensively tested on the specific vehicle application with aid of roller bench setup. Partial engine load soot loading, continuous regeneration and long term soot trapping efficiency have been addressed during the present work.
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