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Investigation of Diesel/Natural Gas RCCI Combustion Using Multiple Reaction Mechanisms at Various Engine Operating Conditions

FEV North America Inc.-Mufaddel Dahodwala, Satyum Joshi, Erik Koehler, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
Michigan Technological University-Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0801
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Past experimental studies conducted by the current authors on a 13 liter 16.7:1 compression ratio heavy-duty diesel engine have shown that diesel /natural gas Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion targeting low NOx emissions becomes progressively difficult to control as the engine load is increased due to difficulty in controlling reactivity levels at higher loads. For the current study, CFD investigations were conducted using the SAGE combustion solver in Converge with the application of Rahimi mechanism. Studies were conducted at a load of 5 bar BMEP to validate the simulation results against RCCI test data. In the low load study, it was found that the Rahimi mechanism was not able to predict the RCCI combustion behavior for diesel injection timings advanced beyond 30bTDC. This behavior was found at multiple engine speed and load points. To resolve this, multiple reaction mechanisms were evaluated and a new reaction mechanism that combines the GRI Mech 3.0 mechanism with the Chalmers mechanism was proposed. This mechanism was found to accurately predict the ignition delay and combustion behavior with early…
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A Connected Controls and Optimization System for Vehicle Dynamics and Powertrain Operation on a Light-Duty Plug-In Multi-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Michigan Technological University-Joseph Oncken, Joshua Orlando, Pradeep K. Bhat, Brandon Narodzonek, Christopher Morgan, Darrell Robinette, Bo Chen, Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0591
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an overview of the connected controls and optimization system for vehicle dynamics and powertrain operation on a light-duty plug-in multi-mode hybrid electric vehicle developed as part of the DOE ARPA-E NEXTCAR program by Michigan Technological University in partnership with General Motors Co. The objective is to enable a 20% reduction in overall energy consumption and a 6% increase in electric vehicle range of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle through the utilization of connected and automated vehicle technologies. Technologies developed to achieve this goal were developed in two categories, the vehicle control level and the powertrain control level. Tools at the vehicle control level include Eco Routing, Speed Harmonization, Eco Approach and Departure and in-situ vehicle parameter characterization. Tools at the powertrain level include PHEV mode blending, predictive drive-unit state control, and non-linear model predictive control powertrain power split management. These tools were developed with the capability of being implemented in a real-time vehicle control system. As a result, many of the developed technologies have been demonstrated in real-time using a fleet of…
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Probing Spark Discharge Behavior in High-speed Cross-flows through Modeling and Experimentation

Michigan Technological University-Mary P. Zadeh, Henry Schmidt, Seong-Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1120
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a combined numerical and experimental investigation of the characteristics of spark discharge in a spark-ignition engine. The main objective of this work is to gain insights into the spark discharge process and early flame kernel development. Experiments were conducted in an inert medium within an optically accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. The cross-flow motion in the vessel was generated using a previously developed shrouded fan. Numerical modeling was based on an existing discharge model in the literature developed by Kim and Anderson. However, this model is applicable to a limited range of gas pressures and flow fields. Therefore, the original model was evaluated and improved to predict the behavior of spark discharge at pressurized conditions up to 45 bar and high-speed cross-flows up to 32 m/s. To accomplish this goal, a parametric study on the spark channel resistance was conducted. Then, the parameters that best fit the experimental data were obtained using the least-squares fit technique. Results show that the model captured the spark discharge characteristics including the occurrence of the spark blowouts…
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Experimental Investigation of the Compression Ignition Process of High Reactivity Gasoline Fuels and E10 Certification Gasoline using a High-Pressure Direct Injection Gasoline Injector

Aramco Services Co.-Tom Tzanetakis
Michigan Technological University-Jiongxun Zhang, Meng Tang, William Atkinson, Henry Schmidt, Seong-Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0323
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) technology shows potential to obtain high thermal efficiencies while maintaining relatively low soot and NOx emissions in light-duty engine applications. Recent experimental studies and numerical simulations have indicated that high reactivity gasoline-like fuels can further enable the benefits of GCI combustion. However, there is limited combustion data in the literature studying the gasoline compression ignition process at relevant in-cylinder conditions which are required for further optimizing combustion system designs. This study investigates the temporal and spatial evolution of the compression ignition process of various high reactivity gasolines with research octane numbers (RON) of 71, 74 and 82, as well as conventional RON 97 E10 gasoline fuel. Combustion visualizations were conducted in an optically accessible constant volume combustion chamber. A ten-hole prototype gasoline injector specifically designed for GCI applications to be capable of injection pressure of up to 450 bar was used. OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity images were recorded simultaneously to characterize the ignition process through two high speed cameras. The experiments were conducted under a wide range of ambient charge…
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Trade-Off Analysis and Systematic Optimization of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Hybrid Powertrain

FEV North America Inc.-Satyum Joshi, Mufaddel Dahodwala, Erik W. Koehler, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
Michigan Technological University-Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0847
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
While significant progress has been made in recent years to develop hybrid and battery electric vehicles for passenger car and light-duty applications to meet future fuel economy targets, the application of hybrid powertrains to heavy-duty truck applications has been very limited. The relatively lower energy and power density of batteries in comparison to diesel fuel and the operating profiles of most heavy-duty trucks, combine to make the application of hybrid powertrain for these applications more challenging. The high torque and power requirements of heavy-duty trucks over a long operating range, the majority of which is at constant cruise point, along with a high payback period, complexity, cost, weight and range anxiety, make the hybrid and battery electric solution less attractive than a conventional powertrain. However, certain heavy-duty applications, such as Class 6-7 urban vocational trucks, can benefit from hybridization due to their transient operating profiles and relatively lower vehicle weight. While many studies have quantified the fuel consumption benefits of hybridization in this segment, very few studies have outlined the arduous process of selection and…
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An Analytical Energy-budget Model for Diesel Droplet Impingement on an Inclined Solid Wall

Argonne National Laboratory-Roberto Torelli
Michigan Technological University-Jiachen Zhai, Nitisha Ahuja, Le Zhao, Xiucheng Zhu, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1158
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The study of spray-wall interaction is of great importance to understand the dynamics that occur during fuel impingement onto the chamber wall or piston surfaces in internal combustion engines. It is found that the maximum spreading length of an impinged droplet can provide a quantitative estimation of heat transfer and energy transformation for spray-wall interaction. Furthermore, it influences the air-fuel mixing and hydrocarbon and particle emissions at combusting conditions. In this paper, an analytical model of a single diesel droplet impinging on the wall with different inclined angles (α) is developed in terms of βm (dimensionless maximum spreading length, the ratio of maximum spreading length to initial droplet diameter) to understand the detailed impinging dynamic process. This analytical model is built up based on the energy conservation that considers kinetic energy, gravitation energy, and surface energy before impingement, as well as viscous dissipation, gravitation energy, adhesion energy, and deformation energy after impingement. The experimental work of diesel droplet impinging on an inclined wall is performed at a certain range of the impact Weber number (We…
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Effect of Fuel Type and Tip Deposits on End of Injection Spray Characteristics of Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injectors

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Mark Meinhart
Michigan Technological University-Robert A. Schroeter, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
There has been a great effort expended in identifying causes of Hydro-Carbon (HC) and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions resulting from poor spray preparation, leading to characterization of fueling behavior near nozzle. It has been observed that large droplet size is a primary contributor to HC and PM emission. Imaging technologies have been developed to understand the break-up and consistency of fuel spray. However, there appears to be a lack of studies of the spray characteristics at the End of Injection (EOI), near nozzle, in particular, the effect that tip deposits have on the EOI characteristics. Injector tip deposits are of interest due to their effect on not only fuel spray characteristics, but also their unintended effect on engine out emissions. Using a novel imaging technique to extract near nozzle fuel characteristics at EOI, the impact of tip deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel injectors at the EOI is being examined in this work. Additionally, the impact of the test fuel used will also be evaluated. This work will present the large influence of fuel…
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Spark Mechanism in High Speed Flow

Michigan Technological University-Mary P. Zadeh, Henry Schmidt, William Atkinson, Jeffrey Naber
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
An experimental study was performed to investigate spark ignition and subsequent spark stretch evolution in an inert environment at high- flow velocities up to 32 m/s across the spark plug gap in a constant-volume optical combustion-vessel at pressures representative of those in an engine. The vessel is capable of generating various in-cylinder thermodynamic conditions representative of light-duty spark ignition engines. The characteristic behavior of the spark was investigated using both a high-speed optical diagnostics and electrical measurement. Charge gas pressures were varied from 15 to 45 bar. Results show that the spark, flowing downstream the spark plug, is subject to short circuits of the spark channel and/or restrikes. The frequency of the restrike increased with increased flow velocity and charge gas pressure and decreased discharge current level. The position of the ground electrode with respect to the flow and the gap size, as well as the flow velocity and charge gas pressure, were determined to have a significant influence on spark plasma development and electrical discharge prediction. It was observed that a wider spark plug…
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Process for Study of Micro-pilot Diesel-NG Dual Fuel Combustion in a Constant Volume Combustion Vessel Utilizing the Premixed Pre-burn Procedure

Michigan Technological University-Xuebin Yang, Vinicius Bonfochi Vinhaes, Jeffrey Naber, Mahdi Shahbakhti, Henry Schmidt, William Atkinson
Westport Fuel Systems-Marco Turcios, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A constant volume spray and combustion vessel utilizing the pre-burn mixture procedure to generate pressure, temperature, and composition characteristic of near top dead center (TDC) conditions in compression ignition (CI) engines was modified with post pre-burn gas induction to incorporate premixed methane gas prior to diesel injection to simulate processes in dual fuel engines. Two variants of the methane induction system were developed and studied. The first used a high-flow modified direct injection injector and the second utilized auxiliary ports in the vessel that are used for normal intake and exhaust events. Flow, mixing, and limitations of the induction systems were studied. As a result of this study, the high-flow modified direct injection injector was selected because of its controlled actuation and rapid closure.Further studies of the induction system post pre-burn were conducted to determine the temperature limit of the methane auto-ignition. It was found that for sufficient induction and mixing time determined from experimental observations and CFD modeling studies, a maximum core temperature of 750 K at the time of micro-pilot diesel injection can…
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Integration of an ORC Waste Heat Recovery with Electrification and Supercharging through Use of a Planetary Gear System for a Class 8 Tractor Application

FEV North America, Inc.-Satyum Joshi, Mufaddel Dahodwala, Erik Koehler, FNU Dhanraj, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
Michigan Technological Univ-Jeffrey Naber
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A novel approach to the Integration of Turbocompounding/WHR, Electrification and Supercharging technologies (ITES) to reduce fuel consumption in a medium heavy-duty diesel engine was previously published by FEV. This paper describes a modified approach to ITES to reduce fuel consumption on a heavy-duty diesel engine applied in a Class 8 tractor.The original implementation of the ITES incorporated a turbocompound turbine as the means for waste heat recovery. In this new approach, the turbocompound unit connected to the sun gear of the planetary gear set has been replaced by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbine expander. The secondary compressor and the electric motor-generator are connected to the ring gear and the carrier gear respectively. The ITES unit is equipped with dry clutch and band brake allowing flexibility in mechanical and electrical integration of the ORC expander, secondary compressor and electric motor-generator to the engine. This approach supports electrical integration of ORC expander when the turbine power output is low and mechanical/power-split integration when the turbine power output is high. At low engine speeds and high loads,…
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