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McKee, Heather
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Impact of High Sulfur Military JP-8 Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler Condensate

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Automotive Research Center, University of Michigan-Michael Mosburger, Jerry Fuschetto, Dennis N. Assanis, Zoran Filipi
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-1081
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Low-sulfur “clean” diesel fuel has been mandated in the US and Europe. However, quality of diesel fuel, particularly the sulfur content, varies significantly in other parts of the world. Due to logistical issues in various theaters of operation, the Army is often forced to rely on local fuel supplies, which exposes vehicles to diesel fuel or jet fuel (JP-8) with elevated levels of sulfur. Modern engines typically use cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) to meet emissions regulations. Using high-sulfur fuels and cooled EGR elevates problems associated with cooler fouling and corrosion of engine components. Hence, an experimental study has been carried out in a heavy-duty diesel engine running on standard JP-8 fuel and fuel doped with 2870 ppm of sulfur. Gas was sampled from the EGR cooler and analyzed using a condensate collection device developed according to a modified ASTM 3226-73T standard. Engine-out emissions were analyzed in parallel. Analysis of results indicates significantly increased levels of sulfur-dioxide and particulate mass with high-sulfur fuel, but negligible amounts of condensed sulfuric acid under normal operating temperatures.
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Accessory Electrification in Class 8 Tractors

Engineered Machined Products-Michael Lasecki
Southwest Research Institute-Joe Redfield, Bapiraju Surampudi, Ray Gustavo, Alan Montemayor
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Fuel costs to operate large trucks have risen substantially in the last few years and, based on petroleum supply/demand curves, that trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Non-propulsion or parasitic loads in a large truck account for a significant percentage of overall engine load, leading to reductions in overall vehicle fuel economy. Electrification of parasitic loads offers a way of minimizing non-propulsion engine loads, using the full motive force of the engine for propulsion and maximizing vehicle fuel economy.This paper covers the integration and testing of electrified accessories, powered by a fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) in a Class 8 tractor. It is a continuation of the efforts initially published in SAE paper 2005-01-0016. Electrified accessories include the engine cooling system, complete with electric water pump and radiator fans; the cabin air conditioning system, including compressor, remote condenser, and fan; and the vehicle compressed air supply system. A 20 kW fuel cell APU supplies 42 VDC power for all electrified accessories. A 34.5 MPa compressed hydrogen storage and supply system, with…
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Electric Air Conditioning for Class 8 Tractors

Applied Electronics Corporation-James C. Lawrence
Masterflux-Anthony S. Carstensen
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Air conditioning and heating of heavy-duty truck cabs is an important contributor to engine efficiency, fuel economy and driver comfort. The air conditioner condenser coil and engine radiator typically share a common cooling fan, making it necessary to run the large engine cooling fan to provide condenser cooling. Engagement of the radiator cooling fan consumes a large amount of energy, further contributing to engine exhaust and noise emissions. Even under moderate temperature conditions, when the conventional engine-driven air conditioning compressor is not in use, the belt drive system adds a small speed-dependent parasitic load to the engine.Electrically driven air conditioning systems have the potential for lower energy consumption than their mechanical counterparts: Electrically driven air conditioning systems can reduce engine idle time by decoupling the air conditioner system from the engine cooling fan while offering near zero parasitic load when not in use.This paper covers the design, integration, and testing of an electric air conditioning system for a Class 8 tractor for day cab cooling and is a continuation of the efforts initially published in…
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Electrification and Integration of Accessories on a Class-8 Tractor

Engineered Machine Products-Michael Lasecki
National Automotive Center-Heather McKee
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes installation and testing of electrified engine accessories and fuel cell auxiliary power units for a Class-8 tractor. A 2.4 kW fuel cell APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) has been added to supply a 42 V power supply for electrification of air conditioning and water pump systems. A 42/12 V dual alternator was used to replace the OEM alternator to provide safety back-up in case of fuel cell failure. A QNX Real Time Operating System-based (RTOS) Rapid Prototype Electronic Control System (RPECS™), developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI™), is used for supervisory control and coordination between accessories and engine. A Controller Area Network (CAN) interface, from the engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU), and the RS232 interface, from the fuel cell controllers, provide system data and control for RPECS. Custom wiring to the hydrogen, water pump, and air conditioning systems also provide data to RPECS. The water pump system controller is autonomous. A driver touch screen graphical interface is linked to the RPECS for display and troubleshooting of the system. The RPECS controller also supports…
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Logistics and Capability Implications of a Bradley Fighting Vehicle with a Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

Delphi Corporation-Joseph Conover, Harry Husted, John MacBain
US Army TACOM-Heather McKee
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
Modern military ground vehicles are dependent not only on armor and munitions, but also on their electronic equipment. Advances in battlefield sensing, targeting, and communications devices have resulted in military vehicles with a wide array of electrical and electronic loads requiring power. These vehicles are typically designed to supply this power via a main internal combustion engine outfitted with a generator. Batteries are also incorporated to allow power to be supplied for a limited time when the engine is off. It is desirable to use a subset of the battlefield electronics in the vehicle while the engine is off, in a mode called “silent watch.” Operating time in this mode is limited, however, by battery capacity unless an auxiliary power unit (APU) is used or the main engines are restarted. Integration of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) auxiliary power unit into a military vehicle has the potential to greatly extend silent watch operating time and capabilities while significantly reducing fuel use.In this paper the results of a study are presented which show the fuel…
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