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Fuel-Lubricant Interactions on the Propensity for Stochastic Pre-Ignition

Driven Racing Oil-Lake Speed
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Bradley Zigler, Jon Luecke
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
This work explores the impact of the interaction of lubricant and fuel properties on the propensity for stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based on statistically significant changes in SPI tendency and magnitude, as determined by measurements of cylinder pressure. Specifically, lubricant detergents, lubricant volatility, fuel volatility, fuel chemical composition, fuel-wall impingement, and engine load were varied to study the physical and chemical effects of fuel-lubricant interactions on SPI tendency. The work illustrates that at low loads, with fuels susceptible to SPI events, lubricant detergent package effects on SPI were non-significant. However, with changes to fuel distillation, fuel-wall impingement, and most importantly engine load, lubricant detergent effects could be observed even at reduced loads This suggests that there is a thermal effect associated with the higher load operation. It was hypothesized that the thermal effect was associated with lube oil nitrogenation. To test this theory, nitromethane (CH3NO2) was blended at 6.5% by volume CH3NO2 resulted in significant sensitivity to lubricant additive package effect on SPI, even at reduced loads where no lubricant sensitivity was observed without…
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Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Mixing Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-Goutham Kukkadapu, Russell A. Whitesides
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Gina Fioroni, Lisa Fouts, Jon Luecke, Derek Vardon, Nabila Huq, Earl Christensen, Xiangchen Huo, Teresa Alleman, Robert McCormick
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Mixing controlled compression ignition, i.e., diesel engines are efficient and are likely to continue to be the primary means for movement of goods for many years. Low-net-carbon biofuels have the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of diesel combustion and could have advantageous properties for combustion, such as high cetane number and reduced engine-out particle and NOx emissions. We developed a list of over 400 potential biomass-derived diesel blendstocks and populated a database with the properties and characteristics of these materials. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a blendstock met the basic requirements for handling in the diesel distribution system and use as a blend with conventional diesel. Criteria included cetane number ≥40, flashpoint ≥52°C, and boiling point or T90 ≤338°C. Blendstocks needed to be soluble in diesel fuel, have a toxicity no worse than conventional diesel, not be corrosive, and be compatible with fuel system elastomers. Additionally, cloud point or freezing point below 0°C was required. Screening based on blendstock properties…
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Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BASF Corp.-Kenneth Voss, Kevin Hallstrom
Caterpillar Inc.-Matthew Leustek, Jared Parsons, Hind Abi-Akar
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1136
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
It is estimated that operating continuously on a B20 fuel containing the current allowable ASTM specification limits for metal impurities in biodiesel could result in a doubling of ash exposure relative to lube-oil-derived ash. The purpose of this study was to determine if a fuel containing metals at the ASTM limits could cause adverse impacts on the performance and durability of diesel emission control systems. An accelerated durability test method was developed to determine the potential impact of these biodiesel impurities. The test program included engine testing with multiple DPF substrate types as well as DOC and SCR catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of cordierite, aluminum titanate, or silicon carbide DPFs after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure of a cordierite DPF to 435,000 mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in the thermal shock resistance parameter. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a…
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Expanding the Experimental Capabilities of the Ignition Quality Tester for Autoigniting Fuels

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Colorado School of Mines-Gregory Bogin, Anthony M. Dean
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew A. Ratcliff, Jon Luecke, Bradley T. Zigler
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0741
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
This paper reports the development of new fuel ignition quality and combustion experiments performed using the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT). Prior SAE papers (961182, 971636, 1999-01-3591, and 2001-01-3527) documented the development of the IQT constant volume combustion chamber experimental apparatus to measure ignition qualities of diesel-type fuels. The ASTM International test method D6890 was developed around the IQT device to allow the rapid determination of derived cetane number (DCN).Interest in chemical kinetic models for the ignition of diesel and biodiesel model compounds is increasing to support the development of advanced engines and fuels. However, rigorous experimental validation of these kinetic models has been limited for a variety of reasons. Shock tubes and rapid compression machines are typically limited to premixed gas-phase studies, for example. Since the IQT is a constant volume spray combustion system that allows ignition and combustion studies of low-volatility fuels, the IQT has potential to generate experimental data relevant to validating kinetic ignition models by virtue of its well-controlled temperature, pressure, and start of fuel injection. IQT-based DCN measurements have been shown…
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Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Canmet ENERGY, Natural Resources Canada-Craig Fairbridge, Darcy Hager, Heather Dettman
Chevron-William J. Cannella
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2769
Published 2009-11-02 by SAE International in United States
The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and1H/13C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™) apparatus.
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Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew J. Thornton, Teresa L. Alleman, Jon Luecke, Robert L. McCormick
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1790
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Increasing interest in biofuels—specifically, biodiesel as a pathway to energy diversity and security—have necessitated the need for research on the performance and utilization of these fuels and fuel blends in current and future vehicle fleets. One critical research area is related to achieving a full understanding of the impact of biodiesel fuel blends on advanced emission control systems. In addition, the use of biodiesel fuel blends can degrade diesel engine oil performance and impact the oil drain interval requirements.There is limited information related to the impact of biodiesel fuel blends on oil dilution. This paper assesses the oil dilution impacts on an engine operating in conjunction with a diesel particle filter (DPF), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) storage, a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control system, and a 20% biodiesel (soy-derived) fuel blend. The main focus was on the biodiesel oil dilution levels observed during an accelerated aging protocol and an assessment of the potential impacts on the engine and emissions control systems. For the NOx storage system (which requires a late in-cylinder fuel injection for…
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