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Lox, Egbert
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Development and Application of a Virtual Soot Loading Sensor

Darmstadt University of Technology-Christian Landgraf, Guenter Hohenberg
Umicore Automotive Catalysts-Egbert Lox, Barry Van Setten, Nicola Soeger, Paul Spurk
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-05-0413
Published 2004-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Korea in South Korea
The particulate filter is set to become a widespread system to control particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel-powered engines. Whereas trapping of soot is easy in general - there do exist a multitude of filtering substrates, offering high efficiencies on dry soot - attention has to be paid to the question of the regeneration process including its initiation, which is still not satisfactorily solved.The soot loading condition and thus the initiation of regeneration process is normally controlled by exhaust gas pressure loss within the filter. However, this measured value characterizes the level of soot loading only incompletely. The accumulated soot mass has to be limited in order to avoid excessive exothermal regeneration which may lead to a destroyed filter substrate. Based on this, regeneration intervals must be shortened due to safety reasons and product durability.A possible solution and improvement represents the application of a Virtual Soot Loading Sensor. This paper reports on development and application work of this sensor, being currently still under development. The sensor claims the ability to calculate accumulated soot mass during…
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Aftertreatment Catalyst Design for the New DaimlerChrysler Supercharged 4-Cylinder Engine with Direct Gasoline Injection

DaimlerChrysler AG-Christian Enderle, Christof Schön, Thomas Ried
OMG AG & Co. KG-Wilfried Mueller, Lutz Ruwisch, Markus Koegel, Stefan Franoschek, Thomas Kreuzer, Egbert Lox
Published 2003-03-03 by SAE International in United States
The launching of direct injection gasoline engines is currently one of the major challenges for the automotive industry in the European Union. Besides its potential for a notable reduction of fuel consumption, the engine with direct gasoline injection also offers increased power during stoichiometric and stratified operation. These advantages will most probably lead to a significant market potential of the direct injection concept in the near future.In order to meet the increasingly more stringent European emission levels (EURO IV), new strategies for the exhaust gas aftertreatment are required. The most promising technique developed in recent years, especially for NOx conversion in lean exhaust gases, is the so-called NOx storage catalyst. The NOx storage technology achieves a high level of NOx conversion by storing nitrogen oxides reversibly as nitrates during lean operating conditions, while the periodic regeneration of the NOx storage components takes place under rich, i.e. under reducing conditions. In order to take full advantage of the fuel savings over the entire life-time of the vehicle, the most important task for the car and the…
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Diesel Particulate Emissions of Passenger Cars - New Insights into Structural Changes During the Process of Exhaust Aftertreatment Using Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

Degussa AG-Harald Klein, Egbert Lox, Thomas Kreuzer
ICT Co., Ltd.-Makoto Kawanami
Published 1998-02-23 by SAE International in United States
Diesel particulate mass emissions and their corresponding size distributions have been investigated on a diesel passenger car at steady state conditions using standard filters and a cascade impactor. These tests have been carried out at two different engine operating conditions (2100 rpm, 2.7 and 13.3 kW, respectively) corresponding to low and high exhaust gas temperatures. Two diesel fuels differing in their sulfur content (150 ppm and 2500 ppm S) have been used for these investigations.The particulate size distribution after diesel oxidation catalyst was found to be affected by the sulfur content of the diesel fuel and by the exhaust gas temperature. Interpretations of these results on a mechanistic basis are given.The diesel particulate emission studies have been extended to dynamic vehicle tests. The structural changes of the particulates using a single and a double-brick catalyst system have been determined during the MVEG-A test in order to identify the influence of catalyst volume. The development of the diesel particulates (size distribution and composition) along the exhaust system have also been studied. The particulate size distribution seems…
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Reduction of Diesel Exhaust Emissions by Using Oxidation Catalysts

AVL LIST GmbH Graz, Austria-Paul Zelenka
DEGUSSA AG Hanau, Germany-Klaus Ostgathe, Egbert Lox
Published 1990-10-01 by SAE International in United States
The paper describes the research work concerning the investigation and optimization of oxidation catalysts for diesel engines, especially for passenger cars and light duty trucks.The investigations carried out both in the laboratory and on the chassis dynamometer with different engine types (DI and IDI as well as natural aspirated and turbocharged) demonstrate the influence of a number of important catalyst design parameters on catalytic converion of soluble particulate content and gaseous emissions (HC, CO and S02) (e.g. precious metal content, washcoat formulation, space velocity, cell density, substrate material, different exhaust gas temperatures, variable oxygen and sulphur dioxide content) with fresh and aged catalysts.Furthermore the results show that only by careful optimization of the engine combustion (FIE, intake manifold swirl, the design of combustion chamber) for the lowest possible insoluble emissions the future emission limits with the necessary margins are obtainable.
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