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Lopes, Shailesh Martin
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Development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel Standard

Center For Quality Assurance-Michael Kunselman
Daimler AG-Daniel Kozub
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The TOP TIERTM Diesel fuel standard was first established in 2017 to promote better fuel quality in marketplace to address the needs of diesel engines. It provides an automotive recommended fuel specification to be used in tandem with regional diesel fuel specifications or regulations. This fuel standard was developed by TOP TIERTM Diesel Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) sponsors made up of representatives of diesel auto and engine manufacturers. This performance specification developed after two years of discussions with various stakeholders such as individual OEMs, members of Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), fuel additive companies, as well as fuel producers and marketers. This paper reviews the major aspects of the development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel program including implementation and market adoption challenges. Various fuel properties of concerns from OEMs perspective are discussed, and details of the TOP TIER TM Diesel standard, including the test methods and corresponding limits, are described.
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Review of 2013 U.S. Retail Biodiesel Blends Quality Survey

General Motors Co.-Shailesh Martin Lopes, Pat Geng
SGS-Anke Konzack
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel is a domestic, renewable fuel for diesel engines and is made from agricultural co-products such as soybean oil, rapeseed oil, palm oil and other natural oils. Biodiesel is a cleaner burning fuel that is biodegradable and non-toxic compared to petroleum diesel.Biodiesel has become a major alternative fuel for automotive applications and is critical for lowering US dependence on foreign oil and attain energy security. Vehicle manufacturers have developed new vehicle and diesel engine technologies compatible with B6-B20 biodiesel blends meeting ASTM D7467 specifications.Field warranty and validation tests have shown significant concerns with use of poor quality biodiesel fuels including fuel system deposits, engine oil deterioration, and efficiency loss of the after treatment system. Maintaining good quality of biodiesel is critical for success as a commercial fuel.This paper will summarize test results of recently collected retail biodiesel blend samples from the U.S. to provide a snap shot of the current fuel quality in the market. Some of the properties reported include biodiesel content, oxidation stability, acid number, cloud point, water, metals, and glycerin content. Significance…
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Estimation of Elemental Composition of Diesel Fuel Containing Biodiesel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

GM Powertrain-Pat Geng
General Motors-Shailesh Martin Lopes
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2600
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are major elements in vehicle fuels. Knowledge of fuels elemental composition is helpful in addressing its performance characteristics. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen composition is an important parameter in engine calibration affecting vehicle performance, emissions and fuel economy.Biodiesel, a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids also known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters(FAME), derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, has become an important commercial marketplace automotive fuel in the United States (US) and around the world over last few years. FAME biodiesels have many chemical and physical property differences compared to conventional petroleum based diesel fuels. Also, the properties of biodiesel vary based on the feedstock chosen for biodiesel production. One of the key differences between petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel is the oxygen content. Typical oxygen content in pure biodiesel (B100) is about 11 weight % while conventional ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel fuel has negligible oxygen content. High oxygen content of biodiesel impacts its characteristics compared to petroleum diesel.A previous paper (SAE2013-01-1139) discussed the change in energy content…
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Calculation of Heating Value for Diesel Fuels Containing Biodiesel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Furey Fuels Consulting, LLC-Robert Furey
General Motors Company-Shailesh Martin Lopes, Pat Geng
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1139
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel, a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids also known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters(FAME), derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, has become an important commercial marketplace automotive fuel in the United States (US) and around the world over last few years. FAME biodiesels have many chemical and physical property differences compared to conventional petroleum based diesel fuels. Also, the properties of biodiesel vary based on the feedstock chosen for biodiesel production. One of the key differences between petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel is the energy content. The energy content, or heating value, is an important property of motor fuel, since it directly affects the vehicle fuel economy. While the energy content can be measured by combustion of the fuel in a bomb calorimeter, this analytical laboratory testing is time consuming and expensive. It would be more convenient to estimate the energy content from other commonly measured fuel properties. Several standardized empirical methods have been developed in the past for estimating the energy content of hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel…
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The Influence of Biodiesel Fuel Quality on Modern Diesel Vehicle Performance

General Motors Company-Shailesh Martin Lopes, Timothy Cushing
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle manufacturers have developed new vehicle and diesel engine technologies compatible with B6-B20 biodiesel blends meeting ASTM D7467, “Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oil, Biodiesel Blend (B6 to B20).” However, recent U.S. market place fuel surveys have shown that many retail biodiesel samples are out of specification. A vehicle designed to use biodiesel blends is likely to encounter occasional use of poor quality biodiesel fuel; and therefore understanding the effects of bad marketplace biodiesel fuels on engine and fuel system performance is critical to develop durable automotive technologies. The results presented herein are from vehicle evaluation studies with both on-specification and off-specification bio-based fuels. These studies focused on the performance of fuel injection equipment, engine, engine oil, emissions and emissions system durability. Evaluations were conducted on B-20 (20 volume% blend of biodiesel in ultra low sulfur diesel fuel, (ULSD), biodiesel (B100) and a 50 volume% blend of vegetable oil and ULSD. The study results showed that in general B20 fuels meeting the ASTM D7467 specification did not cause any operational issues but vehicles operated on…
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Effectiveness of Cold Soak Filtration Test to Predict Precipitate Formation in Biodiesel

General Motors Company-Shailesh Martin Lopes, Douglas Conran, Michael Russell
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel use is increasing around the world. Vehicle failures due to filter clogging issues have been reported in the field with use of biodiesel blended fuels in winter months. In certain instances, filter clogging was caused by precipitate formation above the cloud point of the fuel. Minor contaminants in biodiesel such as sterol glucosides and saturated monoglycerides are suspected to cause precipitation above the cloud point. ASTM has added a requirement to test biodiesel fuel for cold soak filtration test to prevent occurrences of this phenomenon of precipitation above the cloud point. This study focuses on understanding the correlation between cold soak filtration test results and presence of contaminants such as sterol glucosides and saturated monoglycerides in biodiesel fuels. Test samples were also subjected to thermal cycling at temperatures below the cloud point of fuel to co-correlate the cold soak filtration test results to visual observation of precipitate formation. Additionally, clogged diesel fuel filters from field were obtained to identify if biodiesel contaminants led to the clogging issues.
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