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Capturing the Impact of Fuel Octane Number on Modern Gasoline Vehicles with Octane Indices

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Argonne National Laboratory, USA-Forrest Jehlik, Henning Lohse-Busch, Simeon Iliev
Illinois Institute of Technology, USA-Carrie Hall
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-02-0005
Published 2019-05-09 by SAE International in United States
The need for high efficiency automotive engines has led to more complex air handling and fuel injection systems, higher compression ratios, more advanced combustion and aftertreatment systems, and the use of fuels with higher octane ratings. Higher octane number fuels have a lower propensity to knock. This work studies the influence of changing fuel octane rating on two modern production gasoline vehicles, one with a naturally aspirated, port injected engine and the other with a turbocharged, direct injected engine, using fuels with four different octane number grades (with 85, 87, 91, and 93 anti-knock indices) and operated over a variety of driving cycles and temperature conditions. Unlike previous studies, this effort develops and demonstrates a methodology that isolates fuel effects on fuel consumption and provides a clear view of the octane impact on existing vehicles. While fuel octane rating can also impact factors such as the allowable compression ratio and gear shifting strategies, this study examines fuel consumption changes that are solely attributable to octane rating on production vehicles. The developed approach uses results from…
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Energy Efficiency Benefits of Active Transmission Warm-up under Real-World Operating Conditions

Argonne National Laboratory-Simeon Iliev, Henning Lohse-Busch
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Active transmission warm-up systems are used by automotive manufacturers in effort to increase powertrain efficiency and decrease fuel consumption. These systems vary from one manufacturer to another, but their main goal is to capture waste heat from the powertrain and accelerate transmission fluid warm-up. In this study, the fuel consumption benefit from the active transmission warm-up system in a 2013 Ford Taurus 2.0 L EcoBoost is quantified on a cold start UDDS drive cycle at ambient temperatures of −7 and 21 °C. In addition to this, the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions impact on the EPA 5-cycle test, hot start HWY drive cycle, and a cold start, constant speed drive cycle is also quantified. An extra effort to determine the maximum possible benefit of active transmission warm-up is made by modifying the test vehicle to provide external heating to pre-heat and further accelerate the transmission fluid warm-up. The cold start fuel consumption benefit with external pre-heating of the transmission fluid is quantified on a UDDS and constant speed drive cycle at an ambient temperature of −7 °C.…
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Control Analysis and Thermal Model Development for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Argonne National Laboratory-Namwook Kim, Aymeric Rousseau, Henning Lohse-Busch
Seoul National University-Jongryeol Jeong
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1157
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
For electrified vehicles, understanding the impact of temperature on vehicle control and performances becomes more important than before because the vehicle might consume more energy than conventional vehicles due to lack of the engine waste heat. Argonne has tested many advanced vehicles and analyzed the vehicle level control based on the test data. As part of its ongoing effort, Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid was tested in thermal environmental chamber, and the vehicle level control and performances are analyzed by observing the test results. The analysis results show that the control of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is similar with Prius Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) when the vehicle is under a charge sustaining mode, and the vehicle tries to consume the electric energy first under a charge depleting mode. This study provides information about the operating mode and the control behaviors including the change of the control and performances under cold or hot ambient temperature. In order to validate the analysis results, a vehicle model for the PHEV is developed, and the results show that…
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Performance and Efficiency Assessment of a Production CNG Vehicle Compared to Its Gasoline Counterpart

Argonne National Laboratory-Thomas Wallner, Kevin Stutenberg, Henning Lohse-Busch, Michael Duoba
Michigan Technological Univ.-Jay Anderson, Scott Miers
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Two modern light-duty passenger vehicles were selected for chassis dynamometer testing to evaluate differences in performance end efficiency resulting from CNG and gasoline combustion in a vehicle-based context. The vehicles were chosen to be as similar as possible apart from fuel type, sharing similar test weights and identical driveline configurations.Both vehicles were tested over several chassis dynamometer driving cycles, where it was found that the CNG vehicle exhibited 3-9% lower fuel economy than the gasoline-fueled subject. Performance tests were also conducted, where the CNG vehicle's lower tractive effort capability and longer acceleration times were consistent with the lower rated torque and power of its engine as compared to the gasoline model.The vehicles were also tested using quasi-steady-state chassis dynamometer techniques, wherein a series of engine operating points were studied. When the indicated thermal efficiency at each point was calculated, it was found that the CNG vehicle typically exhibited lower thermal efficiency.Several operating points were chosen for further characterization of engine efficiency and combustion behavior, including an analysis of losses. Though the CNG engine had better…
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Analyzing the Energy Consumption Variation during Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Conventional, Hybrid Electric, and Battery Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Argonne National Laboratory-Henning Lohse-Busch, Eric Rask
Colorado State Univ-Jake Bucher, Thomas Bradley
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1805
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Production vehicles are commonly characterized and compared using fuel consumption (FC) and electric energy consumption (EC) metrics. Chassis dynamometer testing is a tool used to establish these metrics, and to benchmark the effectiveness of a vehicle's powertrain under numerous testing conditions and environments. Whether the vehicle is undergoing EPA Five-Cycle Fuel Economy (FE), component lifecycle, thermal, or benchmark testing, it is important to identify the vehicle and testing based variations of energy consumption results from these tests to establish the accuracy of the test's results. Traditionally, the uncertainty in vehicle test results is communicated using the variation. With the increasing complexity of vehicle powertrain technology and operation, a fixed energy consumption variation may no longer be a correct assumption. This paper will present the observed energy consumption variation as measured from the variation in the battery net energy change (NEC), and the variation observed during thermal dynamometer testing. Results will be provided for a variety of vehicle architectures tested on common drive cycles.
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A Comparison of Cold-Start Behavior and its Impact on Fuel Economy for Advanced Technology Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Argonne National Lab.-Eric Rask, Henning Lohse-Busch
Michigan Technological Univ.-Jay Anderson, Scott Miers
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1375
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle operation during cold-start powertrain conditions can have a significant impact on drivability, fuel economy and tailpipe emissions in modern passenger vehicles. As efforts continue to maximize fuel economy in passenger vehicles, considerable engineering resources are being spent in order to reduce the consumption penalties incurred shortly after engine start and during powertrain warmup while maintaining suitably low levels of tailpipe emissions. Engine downsizing, advanced transmissions and hybrid-electric architecture can each have an appreciable effect on cold-start strategy and its impact on fuel economy.This work seeks to explore the cold-start strategy of several passenger vehicles with different powertrain architectures and to understand the resulting fuel economy impact relative to warm powertrain operation. To this end, four vehicles were chosen with different powertrain architectures. These include a modern conventional vehicle with a 6-speed automatic transmission equipped with a torque converter, a downsized and turbocharged GDI vehicle with a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission, a modern turbo-diesel with a 6-speed dual-clutch transmission, and a gasoline-electric hybrid with a power split transmission. The vehicles were operated on a chassis dynamometer…
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Impact of Ambient Temperature and Climate Control on Energy Consumption and Operational Behavior for Various HEVs on the Urban Drive Cycle

Argonne National Laboratory-Henning Lohse-Busch
Virginia Tech-Abhijit Nitin Khare, Douglas Nelson
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Ambient temperature plays an important role in the operational behavior of a vehicle. Temperature variances from 20 F to 72 F to 95 F produce different operation from different HEVs, as prescribed by their respective energy management strategies. The extra variable of Climate Control causes these behaviors to change again. There have been studies conducted on the differences in operational behavior of conventional vehicles as against HEVs, with and without climate control. Lohse-Bush et al conclude that operational behavior of conventional vehicles is much more robust as compared to HEVs and that the effect of ambient temperature is felt more prominently in HEVs (1). However, HEVs cover a broad range of powertrain architectures, climate control systems, vehicle weights etc.The objective of this paper is to examine three different HEVs under three different temperature conditions, both with or without climate control, and come up with observations and trends on their energy usage and operational behavior. For the scope of this study, only the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule) is used since this produces the most observable…
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Advanced Automatic Transmission Model Validation Using Dynamometer Test Data

Argonne National Laboratory-Namdoo Kim, Aymeric Rousseau, Henning Lohse-Busch
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
As a result of increasingly stringent regulations and higher customer expectations, auto manufacturers have been considering numerous technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Transmissions have been shown to be one of the most cost-effective technologies for improving fuel economy. Over the past couple of years, transmissions have significantly evolved and impacted both performance and fuel efficiency. This study validates the shifting control of advanced automatic transmission technologies in vehicle systems by using Argonne National Laboratory's model-based vehicle simulation tool, Autonomie.Different midsize vehicles, including several with automatic transmission (6-speeds, 7-speeds, and 8-speeds), were tested at Argonne's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). For the vehicles, a novel process was used to import test data. In addition to importing measured test signals into the Autonomie environment, the process also calculated some of the critical missing signals, such as gear ratio and torque converter lockup. Numerous analysis functions have been developed to quickly analyze the shifting map, using the integrated test data in Autonomie to generate model parameters. In addition, a set of calibrations for the generic shifting…
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Thermal Model Development and Validation for 2010 Toyota Prius

Argonne National Laboratory-Namwook Kim, Aymeric Rousseau, Daeheung Lee, Henning Lohse-Busch
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper introduces control strategy analysis and performance degradation for the 2010 Toyota Prius under different thermal conditions. The goal was to understand, in as much detail as possible, the impact of thermal conditions on component and vehicle performances by analyzing a number of test data obtained under different thermal conditions in the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) at Argonne National Laboratory. A previous study analyzed the control behavior and performance under a normal ambient temperature; thus the first step in this study was to focus on the impact when the ambient temperature is cold or hot. Based on the analyzed results, thermal component models were developed in which the vehicle controller in the simulation was designed to mimic the control behavior when temperatures of the components are cold or hot. Further, the performance degradation of the components was applied to the mathematical models based on analysis of the test data. All the thermal component models were integrated into a vehicle system with the redesigned supervisory controller, and the vehicle model was validated with the…
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Ambient Temperature (20°F, 72°F and 95°F) Impact on Fuel and Energy Consumption for Several Conventional Vehicles, Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicle

Argonne National Laboratory-Henning Lohse-Busch, Michael Duoba, Eric Rask, Kevin Stutenberg
US Dept of Energy-Lee Slezak, David Anderson
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper determines the impact of ambient temperature on energy consumption of a variety of vehicles in the laboratory. Several conventional vehicles, several hybrid electric vehicles, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and a battery electric vehicle were tested for fuel and energy consumption under test cell conditions of 20°F, 72°F and 95°F with 850 W/m₂ of emulated radiant solar energy on the UDDS, HWFET and US06 drive cycles.At 20°F, the energy consumption increase compared to 72°F ranges from 2% to 100%. The largest increases in energy consumption occur during a cold start, when the powertrain losses are highest, but once the powertrains reach their operating temperatures, the energy consumption increases are decreased. At 95°F, the energy consumption increase ranges from 2% to 70%, and these increases are due to the extra energy required to run the air-conditioning system to maintain 72°F cabin temperatures. These increases in energy consumption depend on the air-conditioning system type, powertrain architecture, powertrain capabilities and drive patterns. The more efficient the powertrain, the larger the impact of climate control (heating or…
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