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Technologies to Achieve Future Emission Legislations with Two Stroke Motorcycles

Graz University of Technology-Roland Oswald, Roland Kirchberger, Stefan Krimplstatter
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent emission regulations force manufacturers of two wheelers to develop low emission motorcycle concepts. Especially for small two-stroke engines with symmetrical port timing structure, causing high HC-emissions due to scavenge losses, this is a challenging demand that can only be met with alternative mixture formation strategies and by intensifying the use of modern development tools. Changing from EU4 to EU5, emission legislation will not only have an impact on the improvement of internal combustion but will also drastically change the after-treatment system.Nowadays, small two-stroke engines make use of a simple carburetor for external mixture preparation. The cylinders are scavenged by air/fuel mixtures. Equipped with exhaust gas after-treatment systems, such as secondary air with two or three catalytic converters, the emission limits for EURO 4 homologation can be achieved with carbureted engines. An increased number of catalytic converters in the exhaust system reduces the performance of a carbureted two stroke engine and has therewith no advantage in comparison to a four stroke engine.Electronically controlled direct injection systems with low pressure (SETC 2008-32-0059), reducing the untreated…
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Overview of Different Gas Exchange Concepts for Two-Stroke Engines

Graz University of Technology-Stefan Sturm, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
The concept of a loop scavenged two-stroke engine, controlling the intake and exhaust port by the moving piston, is a proven way to realize a simple and cheap combustion engine. But without any additional control elements for the gas exchange this concept quickly reaches its limits for current emission regulations. In order to fulfil more stringent emission and fuel consumption limits with a two-stroke engine, one of the most important measures is to avoid scavenging losses of fuel and oil. Additionally, it is necessary to follow a lambda = 1 concept for a 3-way exhaust gas after-treatment.Therefore, using internal mixture preparation systems in combination with different concepts to control the gas exchange process, the two-stroke engine could become a choice for automotive applications, especially as a Range Extender in a Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). As various scavenging concepts and several mixture preparation systems can be used for 2-stroke hybrid propulsion, the pros and cons of different concept combinations have to be compared and weighted for an optimum solution.To get an overview of possible designs…
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Combustion Analysis with Residual Gas as a Design Parameter for Two-Stroke Engines

Andreas Stihl AG & Co KG-Florian Schumann
Graz University of Technology-Pascal Richard Piecha, Stephan Jandl, Stefan Sturm, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
In a variety of applications, two-stroke engines assert their usage as a propulsion unit, for examples in off-road vehicles, scooters, hand-held power tools and others. The outstanding power to weight ratio is the key advantage for two-stroke engines. Furthermore, two-stroke engines convince with high durability and low maintenance demand. However, an increasing environmental awareness, the protection of health and the shortage of fossil resources are the driving factors to further enhance the internal combustion process of two-stroke engines. The reduction of emissions and fuel consumption with a constant power level is focused on.Developments deal with the optimization of the combustion process itself or the enhancement of the exhaust gas aftertreatment. Especially in very small two-stroke engines an exhaust gas aftertreatment system is rarely applied, due to disadvantages regarding component temperatures and product costs. Beside different parameters, the exhaust gas back pressure mainly influences the residual gas content as well as the gas exchange in two stroke engines. Both are essential for the combustion process quality, which can be determined by values of 50% MFB, COV,…
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Artificial Neural Network Based Predictive Real Drive Emission and Fuel Economy Simulation of Motorcycles

Graz University of Technology-Johannes Hiesmayr, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Hausberger, Roland Kirchberger
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
As the number of different engine and vehicle concepts for powered-two wheelers is very high and will even rise with hybridization, the simulation of emissions and fuel consumption is indispensable for further development towards more environmentally friendly mobility. In this work, an adaptive artificial neural network based predictive model for emission and fuel consumption simulation of motorcycles operated in real world conditions is presented. The model is developed in Matlab and Simulink and is integrated into a longitudinal vehicle dynamic simulation whereby it is possible to simulate various and not yet measured test cycles. Subsequently, it is possible to predict real drive emissions RDE and on-road fuel consumption by a minimum of previous measurement effort. The modelling approach is adaptive in terms of usability for different engine and exhaust gas treatment systems as the model does not require specific knowledge of technical vehicle parameters, which might be unknown due to manufacturers’ concealment. Backpropagation is used as supervised learning technique for training the neural networks and various learning inputs are investigated and evaluated. The paper expands…
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Practicability and Influencing Factors of a Lean Burn Mode for Two-Stroke Engines in Hand-Held Powertools

Andreas Stihl AG & Co KG-Florian Schumann, Tim Gegg
Graz University of Technology-Pascal Piecha, Christoph Ninaus, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2017-32-0043
Published 2017-11-05 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
For many applications, such as scooters, hand-held power tools and many off-road vehicles, two-stroke engines are used as a preferred propulsion unit. These engines convince by a good power to weight ratio, a high durability and low maintenance technology and are therefore the first choice in this field of application. In general, already much development effort has been expended to improve those systems. However, an increasing environmental awareness, the protection of health and the shortage of fossil resources are the driving factors to further enhance the internal combustion process of those adapted two-stroke engines. The current focus here is on the reduction of emissions and fuel consumption with an at least constant power output.An approach to address an improvement of engine efficiency can be covered by applying a lean combustion burn mode. In almost all combustion technology sectors, including furnaces, gas turbines and many internal combustion engines, a lean combustion is utilized. Possible advantages of a combustion process under lean conditions are low pollutant emissions and high efficiencies, because flame temperatures are typically low. Nevertheless,…
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Current Findings in Measurement Technology and Measurement Methodology for RDE and Fuel Consumption for Two-Wheeler-Applications

AVL List GmbH-Roland Wanker, Hubert Friedl
Graz University of Technology-Johannes Hiesmayr, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Hausberger, Roland Kirchberger, Christian Zinner, Patrick Filips
  • Technical Paper
  • 2017-32-0041
Published 2017-11-05 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and fuel consumption. To reduce climate-relevant and environmentally harmful gaseous emissions and the exploitation of fossil resources, deep understanding concerning the real drive behavior of mobile sources is needed because emissions and fuel consumption of e.g. passenger cars, operated in real world conditions, considerably differ from the officially published values which are valid for specific test cycles only [1].Due to legislative regulations by the European Commission a methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is well approved for heavy duty vehicles and automotive applications but may not be adapted similar to two-wheeler-applications. This is due to several issues when using the state of the art portable emission measurement system PEMS that will be discussed.Hence, the aim of this paper is to present current experimental investigations in measurement technology and methodology for RDE and fuel consumption with measurement equipment that is used in automotive applications and was adapted for a motorcycle. Aside the installation and calibration, cross influences of these measurement instruments and side effects will…
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Enhanced Diagnosis for Small Engines

BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co KG-Christian Reisenberger
EMT, Graz University of Technology-Matthias Rath, Markus Neumayer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2017-32-0065
Published 2017-11-05 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Small engines for non-automotive and two wheeler applications have a reduced number of sensors. For fulfilling emission regulations a cost effective way is an enhanced use of standard sensors in order to obtain more information from the existing sensors. The delivered information can then be used for an on-board diagnosis. Moreover, it is important to control the quality of the product during engine production; therefore an end-of-line cold engine test is often made. With this measure it is possible to detect faults, wrong tolerances or assembly in order not to deliver faulty engines to the customers.In this paper, an enhanced use of sensors for fault detection will be discussed. It is possible to obtain more information from the signal or to use the sensor for detecting other parameters. For extracting information signal analysis methods will be used with focus on the computational power need since the ECU performance is limited. The starter motor current is a useful indicator for detecting a lack of compression in an end-of-line check. Furthermore, it is possible to assign the…
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Results, Assessment and Legislative Relevance of RDE and Fuel Consumption Measurements of Two-Wheeler-Applications

AVL List GmbH-Roland Wanker, Hubert Friedl
Graz University of Technology-Johannes Hiesmayr, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Hausberger, Roland Kirchberger, Christian Zinner, Patrick Filips
  • Technical Paper
  • 2017-32-0042
Published 2017-11-05 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The reduction of environmentally harmful gases and the ambitions to reduce the exploitation of fossil resources lead to stricter legislation for all mobile sources. Legislative development significantly affected improvements in emissions and fuel consumptions over the last years, mainly measured under laboratory conditions. But real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and it is already well known that these values considerably differ from officially published figures [1]. There are regulated emissions by the European Commission by means of real driving scenarios for passenger cars. A methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is therefore well approved for automotive applications but was not adapted for two-wheeler-applications yet [2].Hence measurements have been performed on-road and on chassis dynamometer for motorcycles with the state of the art RDE measurement equipment to be prepared for possible future legislation. The collected data led to insights into driving dynamic of motorcycles. Therefore, synthetic RDE test cycles on test rig and dynamic trip indicators are discussed to gain a better understanding of the determining influencing factors for RDE and…
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Simulation Based Optimization of a Motorcycle Drive Train by the Integration of a Novel Continuously Variable Planetary Transmission

Fallbrook Technologies, Inc.-Fern Thomassy, Scott McBroom
Graz University of Technology, Institute for Internal Combus-Jürgen Tromayer, Michael Gaber, Roland Kirchberger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2017-32-0071
Published 2017-11-05 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Meeting upcoming emission limits such as EURO 5 with comparatively simple and low-cost vehicles will be very challenging. On the engine side, a big effort in terms of fuelling, combustion optimization as well as exhaust gas aftertreatment will be necessary without any doubt. Besides that, additional system optimization potential can be gained by a systematic adaptation of the drive train. One approach is to use a CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) system to run engines in specific ranges with good fuel economy. However, existing belt driven CVTs show comparatively poor efficiencies. To overcome this drawback, the integration of a novel Continuously Variable Planetary Transmission (CVP), designed and developed by Fallbrook Technologies, was investigated in detail. For this purpose, a longitudinal dynamics simulation in Matlab-Simulink was carried out to compare a standard mass production vehicle drive train with several CVP setups.
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Mass Balancing Measures of a Linkage-Based Extended Expansion Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Graz University of Technology-Patrick Pertl, Michael Lang, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-32-0096
Published 2016-11-08 by SAE International in United States
The enhancement of efficiency will play a more and more important role in the development of future (small) internal combustion engines. In recent years, the Atkinson (or Extended Expansion) cycle, realized over the crank drive, attracted increasing attention. Several OEMs have investigated this efficiency-increasing principle in the whole range from small engines up to automotive engines until now.In prior publications, the authors outlined the remarkable efficiency potentials of an Extended Expansion (EE) cycle. However, for an internal combustion engine, a smooth running performance as well as low vibrations and noise emissions are relevant aspects. This is especially true for an Extended Expansion engine realized over the crank drive. Therefore, design measures concerning friction and NVH need to be taken to enable possible series production status. Basically, these measures strongly depend on the reduction of the free mass forces and moments. Hence, the focus of this publication is laid on mass balancing measures of an Extended Expansion engine based on a linkage system.This paper first gives a brief overview of the specific 2-cylinder engine layout of…
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