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King, Michael
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Simulation of Ice Particle Breakup and Ingestion into the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE)

NASA Glenn Research Center-Ashlie Flegel, Michael King
Vantage Partners Limited-David L. Rigby, William Wright
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Numerical solutions have been generated which simulate flow inside an aircraft engine flying at altitude through an ice crystal cloud. The geometry used for this study is the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) which was recently tested in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) in January 2018. The simulations were carried out at predicted operating points with a potential risk of ice accretion. The extent of the simulation is from upstream of the engine inlet to downstream past the strut in the core and bypass. The flow solution is produced using GlennHT, a NASA in-house code. A mixing plane approximation is used upstream and downstream of the fan. The use of the mixing plane allows for steady state solutions in the relative frame. The flow solution is then passed on to LEWICE3D for particle trajectory, impact and breakup prediction. The LEWICE3D code also uses a mixing plane approximation at the boundaries upstream and downstream of the fan. A distribution of particle sizes is introduced upstream, based on the distribution measured during the test. Predicted collection…
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Ice-Crystal Icing Accretion Studies at the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

NASA John Glenn Research Center-Peter M. Struk, Juan Agui, Thomas Ratvasky, Michael King
Ohio Aerospace Institute-Tadas Bartkus, Jen-Ching Tsao
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes an ice-crystal icing experiment conducted at the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory during June 2018. This test produced ice shape data on an airfoil for different test conditions similar to those inside the compressor region of a turbo-fan jet engine. Mixed-phase icing conditions were generated by partially freezing out a water spray using the relative humidity of flow as the primary parameter to control freeze-out. The paper presents the ice shape data and associated conditions which include pressure, velocity, temperature, humidity, total water content, melt ratio, and particle size distribution. The test featured a new instrument traversing system which allowed surveys of the flow and cloud. The purpose of this work was to provide experimental ice shape data and associated conditions to help develop and validate ice-crystal icing accretion models. The results support previous experimental observations of a minimum melt-ratio threshold for accretion to occur as well as the existence of a plateau region where the icing severity is high for a range of melt ratios. However, a maximum limit for melt ratio,…
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Initial Results from Radiometer and Polarimetric Radar-based Icing Algorithms Compared to In-situ Data

NASA John Glenn Research Center-Michael King, Andrew Reehorst
NCAR-David Serke
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
In early 2015, a field campaign was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The purpose of the campaign is to test several prototype algorithms meant to detect the location and severity of in-flight icing (or icing aloft, as opposed to ground icing) within the terminal airspace. Terminal airspace for this project is currently defined as within 25 kilometers horizontal distance of the terminal, which in this instance is Hopkins International Airport in Cleveland.Two new and improved algorithms that utilize ground-based remote sensing instrumentation have been developed and were operated during the field campaign. The first is the ‘NASA Icing Remote Sensing System’, or NIRSS. The second algorithm is the ‘Radar Icing Algorithm’, or RadIA. In addition to these algorithms, which were derived from ground-based remote sensors, in-situ icing measurements of the profiles of supercooled liquid water (SLW) collected with vibrating wire sondes attached to weather balloons produced a comprehensive database for comparison. Key fields from the SLW-sondes include air temperature, humidity and liquid water content, cataloged by time and 3-D…
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Aluminum Cylinder Head High Cycle Fatigue Durability Including the Effects of Manufacturing Processes

Ford Motor Company-Xingfu Chen, Carlos Engler-Pinto, Michael King, Mei Li, Eben Prabhu, Xuming Su
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
High cycle fatigue material properties are not uniformly distributed on cylinder heads due to the casting process. Virtual Aluminum Casting (VAC) tools have been developed within Ford Motor Company to simulate the effects of the manufacturing process on the mechanical properties of cast components. One of VAC features is the ability to predict the high cycle fatigue strength distribution. Residual stresses also play an important role in cylinder head high cycle fatigue, therefore they are also simulated and used in the head high cycle fatigue analysis. Cylinder head assembly, thermal and operating stresses are simulated with ABAQUS™. The operating stresses are combined with the residual stresses for high cycle fatigue calculations. FEMFAT™ is used for the high cycle fatigue analysis. A user-defined Haigh diagram is built based on the local material properties obtained from the VAC simulation. It is demonstrated that the use of local properties distribution in FEMFAT™ has significantly improved the cylinder head high cycle fatigue simulation results.
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An Advanced and Comprehensive CAE Approach of Piston Dynamics Studies for Piston Optimal and Robust Design

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ford Motor Company-Tao Xu, Sheng-Jaw Hwang, Chung-Yao Tang, Mikhail Ejakov, Michael King
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1404
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
A successful piston design requires eliminate the following failure modes: structure failure, skirt scuffing and piston unusual noise. It also needs to deliver least friction to improve engine fuel economy and performance. Traditional approach of using hardware tests to validate piston design is technically difficult, costly and time consuming. This paper presents an up-front CAE tool and an analytical process that can systematically address these issues in a timely and cost-effectively way.This paper first describes this newly developed CAE process, the 3D virtual modeling and simulation tools used in Ford Motor Company, as well as the piston design factors and boundary conditions. Furthermore, following the definition of the piston design assessment criteria, several piston design studies and applications are discussed, which were used to eliminate skirt scuffing, reduce piston structure dynamic stresses, minimize skirt friction and piston slapping noise. A multi-objective optimal study on piston design is also presented in the end of this paper. In summary, the presented CAE process and tools can be used to identify piston failure modes and optimize piston design…
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Modeling, Validation and Dynamic Analysis of Diesel Pushrod Overhead Bridged Valve Train

Ford Motor Company-Tao (Tom) Xu, Chungyao (Alex) Tang, Huihua (Harry) Shen, Michael King, Mark Nowak
International Truck and Engine Corporation-Qianfan (Harry) Xin
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
A bridged valve train configuration exhibits complex dynamic behavior due to the uniqueness of the special elephant foot/bridge/valve structure. Consequently, this system arrangement presents significant design challenges in system stability at high speed, high load, wear, no-follow and valve seating velocity, etc. An efficient way to gain a thorough understanding of the behavior of this type of valve train system and to drive the valve train design improvement is through the use of an effective dynamic simulation tool.In this paper, an advanced CAE tool developed by Ford Motor Company for the bridged type valve train simulations has been described. This automated CAE tool provides a complete virtual ADAMS-based simulation environment for the pushrod bridged valve train system analysis. This paper also presents the correlation and validation between the simulations and the measurements. The design analysis for the bridged valve train has been discussed briefly in this paper.
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