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Role of lubricating oil properties in exhaust particle emissions of an off-road diesel engine

Neste Corporation-Kari Kulmala
Tampere University-Panu Karjalainen, Topi Rönkkö, Jorma Keskinen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0386
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Particle number emissions from an off-road diesel engine without exhaust after-treatment were studied by using five different heavy-duty lubricating oils in the engine. The study extends understanding how the properties of lubricating oil affect the emissions of the smallest nanoparticles from a modern off-road diesel engine. The lubricants were selected among the performance classes of the European Automobile Manufacturers Association, at least one lubricant from each category intended for heavy-duty diesel engines. Particle size distributions were measured by means of an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS), but particle mass emissions, soot emissions, gaseous emissions and the basic engine performance were also determined. During the non-road steady cycle, the most of the differences were detected at the particle sizes of 6–15 nm. In most cases, the lowest particle quantities were emitted when the highest performance category lubricant was used. Based on the results of this study, the low contents of Zn, P, and S in lubricating oil contributed to the reduced emission factors for engine-out nucleation mode particles at any load. In addition, the low content…
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Effect of Injection Parameters on Exhaust Gaseous and Nucleation Mode Particle Emissions of a Tier 4i Nonroad Diesel Engine

Metropolia Univ of Applied Sciences-Liisa Pirjola
Tampere Univ of Technology-Topi Rönkkö, Panu Karjalainen, Jorma Keskinen, Heino Kuuluvainen
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
During the past few decades the exhaust emissions of diesel engines have significantly decreased due to efficient emissions regulation. Compared to the situation in the 1990s, the nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, the main challenges for diesel engines, are now reduced 80-95 % in many industrialized countries. To meet the demanding requirements, engine technologies have been updated and improved step by step. These improvements have also kept Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) figures at a low level or they have even improved. The latter issue is of great significance for consumers (cost) and also for the environment (CO2).Nowadays many diesel engine fuel injection strategies rely on the use of exhaust after-treatment systems. Efficient and clean combustion is obtained by utilizing high injection pressure and advanced injection timing. The resulting high engine-out NOx is reduced to the target level by using an efficient NOx after-treatment system, possibly supported by an EGR system. In several applications no particulate filter is necessarily yet required for a nonroad engine to meet its emission limits. However, according to…
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The Effect of a Particle Oxidation Catalyst (POC®) on Particle Emissions of a GDI Car during Transient Engine Operation

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Theodoros Tzamkiozis
Ecocat Oy-Matti Happonen, Pekka Matilainen, Kauko Kanniainen, Toni Kinnunen
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Particle emissions have been generally associated to diesel engines. However, spark-ignition direct injection (SI-DI) engines have been observed to produce notable amounts of particulate matter as well. The upcoming Euro 6 legislation for passenger cars (effective in 2014, stricter limit in 2017) will further limit the particulate emissions from SI engines by introducing a particle number emission (PN) limit, and it is not probable that the SI-DI engines are able to meet this limit without resorting to additional aftertreatment systems.In this study, the solid particle emissions of a SI-DI passenger car with and without an installed Particle Oxidation Catalyst (POC®) were studied over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) on a chassis dynamometer and over real transient acceleration situations on road. It was observed that a considerable portion of particle number emissions occurred during the transient acceleration phases of the cycle. The application of the POC resulted in a reduction of those emission peaks and, as a conclusion, the car was able to meet the 2017 Euro 6 particle number emission limit with the POC.The…
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Reduction of Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust Particle Number and Mass at Low Exhaust Temperature Driving by the DOC and the SCR

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Finnish Meteorological Institute-Sanna Saarikoski, Minna Aurela, Risto Hillamo
Metropolia Univ of Applied Sciences-Aleksi Malinen, Liisa Pirjola
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1664
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The effect of SCR on nanoparticle emissions has been a subject for some recent diesel particle emission related studies. In this study, the effect of after-treatment (DOC and SCR) on particle emissions was studied with a heavy-duty off-road diesel engine (emission level stage 3b with an SCR). A special “transient cold test cycle” (TCTC) was designed to describe the SCR system operation at low exhaust gas temperatures. The particle instrumentation made it possible to measure on-line the particle number concentration, particle size distribution and chemical composition of particles. The largest particle number concentrations were measured after the exhaust manifold. The exhaust after-treatment was observed to reduce the total particle number concentration by 82.5% with the DOC and 95.7% with the DOC+SCR. Also the mean particle composition was affected by the after-treatment; while the organics formed the main fraction of the particulate mass without exhaust after-treatment, after the DOC and especially after the DOC+SCR the organic particulate matter was reduced so that most significant particle fraction was soot. The effect of after-treatment was similar both on…
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Performance of Particle Oxidation Catalyst and Particle Formation Studies with Sulphur Containing Fuels

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BOSMAL Automotive R&D Institute-Piotr Bielaczyc, Jakub Dzida, Rafal Sala
Ecocat Oy-Toni Kinnunen, Pekka Matilainen
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0366
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this paper is to analyze the quantitative impact of fuel sulfur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) functionality, focusing on soot emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were conducted on fuels containing three different levels of sulfur, covering the range of 6 to 340 parts per million, for a light-duty application. The data presented in this paper provide further insights into the specific issues associated with usage of a POC with fuels of higher sulfur content. A 48-hour loading phase was performed for each fuel, during which filter smoke number, temperature and back-pressure were all observed to vary depending on the fuel sulfur level. The Fuel Sulfur Content (FSC) affected also soot particle size distributions (particle number and size) so that with FSC 6 ppm the soot particle concentration was lower than with FSC 65 and 340, both upstream and downstream of the POC. Conversely, FSC did not have major effects on the soot particle number reduction efficiency of the POC. Soot and other exhaust compounds accumulated within the POC…
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Effect of Exhaust Flow Conditions and External Cooling on the Performance of the Particle Oxidation Catalyst (POC)

Ecocat Oy-Kati Lehtoranta, Pekka Matilainen, Toni Kinnunen
Tampere Univ of Technology-Panu Karjalainen, Juha Heikkila, Topi Ronkko, Jorma Keskinen
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Under on-road driving conditions, the engine load and speed and the cooling effect of ambient air may affect the functioning of exhaust aftertreatment devices. In this paper, we studied the effects of these parameters on the functioning of the combination of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Particle Oxidation Catalyst (DOC+POC). In the engine tests, the engine load and speed were observed to affect the nonvolatile particle reduction efficiency curve of the DOC+POC; while the nonvolatile core particle (Dp ≺ 15 nm) reduction was high (97-99%) in all the engine test modes, the reduction of soot varied from 57% at low load to 70% at high load. Because the change in engine load and speed affected both the exhaust temperature and flow velocity, the effects of these parameters were measured separately in an aerosol laboratory. Results indicated that compared to the exhaust temperature, the exhaust flow velocity had a more significant role from the viewpoint of the nonvolatile particle reduction efficiency of the DOC+POC system. At three engine test modes, the external cooling did not…
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