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Kalaskar, Vickey
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Improving Heady Duty Natural Gas Engine Efficiency: A Systematic Approach to Application of Dedicated EGR

Southwest Research Institute-Michael C. Kocsis, Robert Mitchell, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Vickey Kalaskar, D. Ryan Williams, Scott Sjovall
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0818
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The worldwide trend of tightening CO2 emissions standards and desire for near zero criteria pollutant emissions is driving development of high efficiency natural gas engines for a low CO2 replacement of traditional diesel engines. A Cummins Westport ISX12 G was previously converted to a Dedicated EGR ™ (D-EGR™) configuration with two out of the six cylinders acting as the EGR producing cylinders. Using a systems approach, the combustion and turbocharging systems were optimized for improved efficiency while maintaining the potential for achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX standards. A prototype variable nozzle turbocharger was selected to maintain the stock torque curve. The EGR delivery method enabled a reduction in pre-turbine pressure as the turbine was not required to be undersized to drive EGR. A high energy Dual Coil Offset (DCO®) ignition system was utilized to maintain stable combustion with increased EGR rates. High compression ratio, reduced squish pistons were designed to maintain MBT combustion phasing and fast burn rates along the torque curve. The final engine configuration was tested on the Heavy-Duty Supplemental Emissions Test (SET), a…
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Evaluation of Diesel Spray with Non-Circular Nozzle - Part I: Inert Spray

Southwest Research Institute-Khanh Cung, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Bansal Shah, Vickey Kalaskar, Jason Miwa, Zainal Abidin
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Numerous studies have characterized the impact of high injection pressure and small nozzle holes on spray quality and the subsequent impact on combustion. Higher injection pressure or smaller nozzle diameter usually reduce soot emissions owing to better atomization quality and fuel-air mixing enhancement. The influence of nozzle geometry on spray and combustion of diesel continues to be a topic of great research interest. An alternate approach impacting spray quality is investigated in this paper, specifically the impact of non-circular nozzles. The concept was explored experimentally in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion chamber (CVCC). Non-reacting spray evaluations were conducted at various ambient densities (14.8, 22.8, 30 kg/m3) under inert gas of Nitrogen (N2) while injection pressure was kept at 100 MPa. Shadowgraph imaging was used to obtain macroscopic spray characteristics such as spray structure, spray penetration, and the spray cone angle. Analysis from image processing showed expected result of lower penetration rate and higher spray cone angle as ambient density increased. Two slot nozzles with different aspect ratios but similar flow area as compared with one…
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Combined Effects of Engine and Oil Age on Low Speed Pre-Ignition

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Southwest Research Institute-Andre Swarts, Travis Kostan, Vickey Kalaskar
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0033
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) is a well-established phenomenon that occurs in boosted, direct injection, spark ignition engines. The impact of lubricant formulation has arguably received the most attention, leading to the introduction of the Sequence IX test for LSPI as part of the API SN PLUS lubricant service category. This test, as with most other LSPI evaluations, considers the performance of the fresh oil. A handful of papers have started addressing the effect of both engine and oil age on LSPI during both test-stand and in-vehicle studies. The current paper adds to this body of knowledge by analyzing results from multiple test-bench installations of the GM LHU engine platform. For each engine, multiple tests, each comprising of multiple segments of a high-load, low-speed test point, known to amplify the occurrence of LSPI, were analyzed to investigate the combined effect of oil and engine age on LSPI activity. Three different baseline oils, which were repeated multiple times, as well as several candidate oils, were included in the data set. Since the baseline LSPI activities showed an overall…
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Effect of Micro-Hole Nozzle on Diesel Spray and Combustion

Southwest Research Institute-Khanh Cung, Daniel Christopher Bitsis, Thomas Briggs, Vickey Kalaskar, Zainal Abidin, Bansal Shah, Jason Miwa
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The influence of nozzle geometry on spray and combustion of diesel continues to be a topic of great research interest. One area of promise, injector nozzles with micro-holes (i.e. down to 30 μm), still need further investigation. Reduction of nozzle orifice diameter and increased fuel injection pressure typically promotes air entrainment near-nozzle during start of injection. This leads to better premixing and consequently leaner combustion, hence lowering the formation of soot. Advances in numerical simulation have made it possible to study the effect of different nozzle diameters on the spray and combustion in great detail. In this study, a baseline model was developed for investigating the spray and combustion of diesel fuel at the Spray A condition (nozzle diameter of 90 μm) from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) community. Upon validation of parameters such as spray penetration, lift-off length, and ignition delay the baseline simulation was extended to study different nozzle orifice diameters. All simulations were performed using a constant-volume combustion chamber (CVCC) geometry with similar ambient conditions of pressure (60 bar) and temperature (900 K). It was shown…
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Impact of Supplemental Natural Gas on Engine Efficiency, Performance, and Emissions

The Pennsylvania State University-Claire Maxey, Vickey Kalaskar
University of Michigan-Dongil Kang, Andre Boehman
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the performance and emissions of a 4 cylinder 2.5L light-duty diesel engine with methane fumigation in the intake air manifold is studied to simulate a dual fuel conversion kit. Because the engine control unit is optimized to work with only the diesel injection into the cylinder, the addition of methane to the intake disrupts this optimization. The energy from the diesel fuel is replaced with that from the methane by holding the engine load and speed constant as methane is added to the intake air. The pilot injection is fixed and the main injection is varied in increments over 12 crank angle degrees at these conditions to determine the timing that reduces each of the emissions while maintaining combustion performance as measured by the brake thermal efficiency. It is shown that with higher substitution the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions can increase by up to twenty times. The NOx emissions decrease for all engine conditions, up to 53%. The thermal efficiency of the engine is highest with the most advanced injection timing for…
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