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GDCI Multi-Cylinder Engine for High Fuel Efficiency and Low Emissions

SAE International Journal of Engines

Delphi Powertrain-Mark Sellnau, Wayne Moore, James Sinnamon, Kevin Hoyer, Matthew Foster, Harry Husted
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0834
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A 1.8L Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) engine was tested over a wide range of engine speeds and loads using RON91 gasoline. The engine was operated with a new partially premixed combustion process without combustion mode switching. Injection parameters were used to control mixture stratification and combustion phasing using a multiple-late injection strategy with GDi-like injection pressures.At idle and low loads, rebreathing of hot exhaust gases provided stable compression ignition with very low engine-out NOx and PM emissions. Rebreathing enabled reduced boost pressure, while increasing exhaust temperatures greatly. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions after the oxidation catalyst were very low. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 267 g/kWh was measured at the 2000 rpm-2bar BMEP global test point.At medium load to maximum torque, rebreathing was not used and cooled EGR enabled low-temperature combustion with very low NOx and PM, while meeting combustion noise targets. MAP was reduced to minimize boost parasitics. Minimum BSFC was measured at 213 g/kWh at 1800 rpm - 12 bar IMEP.Full load torque characteristics of the engine were developed using…
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The Effects of GDi Fuel Pressure on Fuel Economy

Delphi Automotive-Harry Husted, Timothy D. Spegar, Joseph Spakowski
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
To meet future particulate number regulations, one path being investigated is higher fuel pressures for direct injection systems. At operating pressures of 30 MPa to 40 MPa, the fuel system components must be designed to withstand these pressures and additional power is required by the pump to pressurize the fuel to higher pressures than the nominal 15MPa to 20MPa in use today. This additional power to the pump can affect vehicle fuel economy, but may be partially offset by increases in combustion efficiency due to improved spray mixture preparation. This paper examines the impact on fuel economy from increased system fuel pressures from a combination of test results and simulations. A GDi pump and valvetrain model has been developed and correlated to existing pump torque measurements and subsequently used to predict the increase in torque and associated impact on fuel economy due to higher GDi system pressures.
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Sensing Exhaust NO2 Emissions Using the Mixed Potential Principle

Delphi Automotive-Da Yu Wang, David M. Racine, Harry Husted, Sheng Yao
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
NOx aftertreatment is an essential subsystem to enable diesel and lean gasoline engines to meet emissions regulations. A selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, which uses urea to create ammonia (NH3) for NOx reduction, is one popular form of NOx aftertreatment system. These urea based NOx aftertreatment systems can benefit from closed-loop control when appropriate NH3, NOx, or NO2 exhaust gas sensors are available. For example, knowing exhaust NO2 emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst can help the urea dosing strategy to maximize the efficiency of a urea SCR system. Such sensing capability, combined with ammonia sensing, can provide enhanced closed-loop control of the SCR system as well as information for on-board diagnosis.This paper covers Delphi's progress in developing an exhaust NO2 sensor. Sensor data from a synthetic gas bench and from engine testing is presented for four NO2 sensors, along with investigations into the sensor's sensitivity to a variety of relevant factors such as oxygen concentration, humidity, and operating temperature. Data regarding the sensor's cross-sensitivity to NO and NH3 are also presented, in both gas…
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Innovative Sprays and Particulate Reduction with GDi Injectors

Delphi Automotive-Joseph Kazour, Bizhan Befrui, Harry Husted, Michael Raney, Daniel Varble
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Innovative nozzle hole shapes for inwardly opening multi-hole gasoline direct injectors offer opportunities for improved mixture formation and particulate emissions reduction. Compared to increased fuel pressure, an alternative associated with higher system costs and increased pumping work, nozzle hole shaping simply requires changes to the injector nozzle shape and may have the potential to meet Euro 6 particulate regulations at today's 200 bar operating pressure.Using advanced laser drilling technology, injectors with non-round nozzle holes were built and tested on a single-cylinder engine with a centrally-mounted injector location. Particulate emissions were measured and coking deposits were imaged over time at several operating fuel pressures.This paper presents spray analysis and engine test results showing the potential benefits of alternative non-round nozzle holes in reducing particulate emissions and enhancing robustness to coking with various operating fuel pressures.
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Development of a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Delphi Automotive-Mark Sellnau, Matthew Foster, Kevin Hoyer, Wayne Moore, James Sinnamon, Harry Husted
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1300
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
In previous work, Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) has demonstrated good potential for high fuel efficiency, low NOx, and low PM over the speed-load range using RON91 gasoline. In the current work, a four-cylinder, 1.8L engine was designed and built based on extensive simulations and single-cylinder engine tests. The engine features a pent roof combustion chamber, central-mounted injector, 15:1 compression ratio, and zero swirl and squish. A new piston was developed and matched with the injection system. The fuel injection, valvetrain, and boost systems were key technology enablers.Engine dynamometer tests were conducted at idle, part-load, and full-load operating conditions. For all operating conditions, the engine was operated with partially premixed compression ignition without mode switching or diffusion controlled combustion. At idle and low load, rebreathing of hot exhaust gases provided stable combustion with NOx and PM emissions below targets of 0.2g/kWh and FSN 0.1, respectively. The coefficient of variation of IMEP was less than 3 percent and the exhaust temperature at turbocharger inlet was greater than 250 C. BSFC of 280 g/kWh was measured…
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Boost System Development for Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition (GDCI)

SAE International Journal of Engines

Delphi Powertrain-Kevin S. Hoyer, Mark Sellnau, James Sinnamon, Harry Husted
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0928
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Intake boosting is an important method to improve fuel economy of internal combustion engines. Engines can be down-sized, down-speeded, and up-loaded to reduce friction losses, parasitic losses, and pumping losses, and operate at speed-load conditions that are thermodynamically more efficient. Low-temperature combustion engines (LTE) also benefit from down-sizing, down-speeding, and up-loading, but these engines exhibit very low exhaust enthalpy to drive conventional turbochargers. This paper describes modeling, evaluation, and selection of an efficient boost system for a 1.8L four-cylinder Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition (GDCI) engine.After a preliminary concept selection phase the model was used to develop the boost system parameters to achieve full-load and part-load engine operation objectives. The simulation was used to demonstrate that a practical boost system can provide the boost necessary at reasonable brake efficiency levels over the entire engine operating range. A comprehensive simulation based calibration was performed to determine the most efficient steady operation settings. Also a step change in speed/load engine operation was simulated to demonstrate the system transient response.
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Cold Performance Challenges with CNG PFI Injectors

Delphi Corp.-Raul Bircann, Youssef Kazour, Kenneth Dauer, Mahoro Fujita, Allan Wells, Daniel Francis Kabasin, Harry Husted
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is gaining popularity as a viable alternate transportation fuel in many regions of the world. Injectors capable of delivering pressurized gaseous fuels have been developed for this emerging vehicular market segment. CNG fuel injectors must be designed to be compatible and durable with a very low lubricity gaseous fuel to meet automotive OEM life expectancy standards. Traditional gasoline injectors utilize a “hard/hard” sealing configuration, in which both the valve and seat are constructed out of hard metals. When properly lubricated with liquid fuels, these valves can meet vehicular injector leak and flow durability requirements. However, metal valves operating without lubrication can experience excessive wear, which leads to unacceptable levels of gas leakage and flow shifts. The use of elastomer-to-metal sealing surfaces minimizes leakage, but may cause cold ambient operation challenges. In this paper we will provide an overview of a compressed natural gas port fuel injector and associated test results for meeting both durability and cold performance challenges.
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Part-Load Operation of Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) Engine

Delphi Powertrain-Mark C. Sellnau, James Sinnamon, Kevin Hoyer, Junghwan Kim, Marilou Cavotta, Harry Husted
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Previous studies of gasoline direct-injection compression-ignition (GDCI) showed good potential for very high efficiency, low NOx, and low PM over the full speed-load range. Low-temperature combustion was achieved using multiple-late injection (MLI), intake boost, and cooled EGR. Advanced injection and valvetrain were key enablers. In the current study, a new piston was developed and matched with the injection system. Single-cylinder engine tests were conducted with the objective to reduce injection pressure, intake boost, and swirl levels. Results showed that ISFC could be further improved while maintaining low levels of NOx, PM, and combustion noise. Efficiency loss analysis indicated a very efficient thermodynamic process with greatly reduced heat losses. Injection parameters could be used to control combustion phasing with good combustion stability.Engine simulations were performed to develop a practical boost system for GDCI. Sufficient intake boosting is difficult for low-temperature-combustion engines because the exhaust enthalpy to drive a turbocharger is very low. Several boost architectures with various boost devices were studied. A two-stage system with a supercharger, a turbocharger, and two charge coolers was selected and…
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Sensing of Particulate Matter for On-Board Diagnosis of Particulate Filters

SAE International Journal of Engines

Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC-Harry Husted, Gregory Roth, Scott Nelson, Lary Hocken, Gary Fulks, David Racine
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0372
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
New particulate sensing technologies are currently being readied for production to meet the on-board diagnostic (OBD) regulations associated with diagnosing diesel particulate filter (DPF) efficiency. The threshold levels for diagnosis have been tightened starting in 2013, requiring a new approach beyond the current techniques which often rely on differential pressure sensing across the filter. A new sensor has been developed to directly detect the particles passing through the DPF and estimate the cumulative particle flow. Using this information, an estimate can be made of the filter's efficiency and an associated diagnosis of its ability to meet emissions requirements. In this paper we will discuss the sensor's operating principle, accuracy and repeatability. Experimentally-observed variability of exhaust particulate matter will be compared to simulated deposition of soot1 in a modeling environment.1The authors acknowledge that “soot” is an imprecise colloquial term relating to chimney deposits. Soot is used for brevity in this paper and is intended to be interchangeable, unless otherwise noted, with “particulate matter,” since the sensor in discussion has the potential to collect the full range…
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Full-Time Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) for High Efficiency and Low NOx and PM

SAE International Journal of Engines

Delphi Corp.-Mark C. Sellnau, James Sinnamon, Kevin Hoyer, Harry Husted
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0384
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
A gasoline compression-ignition combustion system is being developed for full-time operation over the speed-load map. Low-temperature combustion was achieved using multiple late injection (MLI), intake boost, and moderate EGR for high efficiency, low NOx, and low particulate emissions. The relatively long ignition delay and high volatility of RON 91 pump gasoline combined with an advanced injection system and variable valve actuation provided controlled mixture stratification for low combustion noise.Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder research engine. Design of Experiments and response surface models were used to evaluate injection strategies, injector designs, and various valve lift profiles across the speed-load operating range. At light loads, an exhaust rebreathing strategy was used to promote autoignition and maintain exhaust temperatures. At medium loads, a triple injection strategy produced the best results with high thermal efficiency. Detailed heat release analysis indicated that heat losses were significantly reduced. At higher loads, a late-intake-valve-closing strategy was used to reduce the effective compression ratio. For all tests, intake air temperature was 50 C.3D CFD simulations of fuel injection, mixing, and combustion were…
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