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An Experimental Study of Atmospheric Icing Process on Power Transmission Line

Iowa State University-Ramsankar Veerakumar, Linyue Gao, Yang Liu, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Atmospheric icing poses a major threat to power transmission lines in cold regions. In the present study, an experimental investigation was conducted to examine the atmospheric icing process on high-voltage power transmission lines and characterize the effects of the ice accretion on the aerodynamic forces acting on the transmission lines. The experimental study was conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT). A cylinder model with the same diameter of commonly-used high-voltage power transmission lines (i.e., D = 29mm) is subjected to a typical glaze icing condition at an incoming wind speed of 20 m/s, a liquid water content (LWC) of 2.0 g/m3 and an ambient temperature of -5 0C. A high-resolution 3D scanner was used in the present study to extract the 3D shapes of the ice structures accreted over surface of the cylindrical test model as a function of the ice accretion time. While the aerodynamic drag force acting on the test model was measured by using a force transducer during the dynamic ice accreting process, a high-resolution Particle…
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A Novel Heating-Coating Hybrid Strategy for Wind Turbine Icing Mitigation

Iowa State University-Linyue Gao, Liqun Ma, Yang Liu, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The electro-thermal method is most commonly used for wind turbine anti-/de-icing. The upmost drawback of such systems is the high power consumption. In the present study, we proposed to use a durable slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) to effectively reduce the power requirement of the heating element during the anti-/de-icing process. The explorative study was conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT) with a DU91-W2-250 wind turbine blade model exposed under severe icing conditions. During the experiments, while a high-speed imaging system was used to record the dynamic ice accretion process, an infrared (IR) thermal imaging system was also utilized to achieve the simultaneous surface temperature measurements over the test model. In comparison to the traditional electrical heating strategies to brutally heat massive area of entire turbine blades, a novel heating-coating hybrid strategy, i.e., combining a leading-edge (LE) heating element to cover the first 30% of the chord length (C) along with using SLIPS to coat entire blade surface, was found to be able to keep the entire blade surface completely…
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A Parametric Study on the Thermodynamic Characteristics of DBD Plasma Actuation and Its Potential for Wind Turbine Icing Mitigation

Iowa State University-Cem Kolbakir, Linyue Gao, Yang Liu, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Wind turbine icing represents the most significant threat to the integrity of wind turbines in cold weather. Ice formation on wind turbine blades was found to cause significant aerodynamic performance degradation, resulting in a substantial drop in energy production. Recently developed Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma-based anti-/de-icing systems showed very promising effects for aircraft icing mitigation. In this present study, DBD plasma-based anti-/de-icing systems were employed for wind turbine icing mitigation. First, a comprehensive parametric study is conducted to investigate the effects of various DBD plasma actuation parameters on its thermodynamic characteristics. An infrared (IR) thermal imaging system is used to quantitatively measure the temperature distributions over the test plate under various test conditions. DBD plasma actuators are embedded over the surface of a DU91-W2-250 wind turbine blade model, and a series of experiments were conducted by using the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISU-IRT) to evaluate the anti-/de-icing performance of the system for wind turbine icing mitigation. Dynamic anti-icing process was recorded by a high-speed imaging system, and an IR…
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An Explorative Study to Use Super-Hydrophilic/Super-Hydrophobic Hybrid Surfaces for Aircraft Icing Mitigation

Iowa State University-Haiyang Hu, Hui Hu, Yang Liu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
An explorative study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of using a novel hybrid anti-/de-icing strategy for aircraft icing mitigation. The hybrid method was developed by combining the electro-thermal heating mechanism and specialized surfaces/coatings with different wettabilities. While an electrical film heater was utilized to provide thermal energy around the leading edge of a NACA0012 airfoil model, two different coating strategies, (i.e., (a). Superhydrophobic coating covering the entire airfoil surface to increase droplets bounce-off and accelerate surface water runback vs. (b). super-hydrophilic coating at the leading edge to increase evaporation area + superhydrophobic coating in downstream to prevent runback refreezing) were proposed and evaluated aiming at maximizing the anti-/de-icing efficiency of the hybrid method. While a series of experiments were conducted to examine the dynamics of droplet impinging onto the different surfaces (i.e., superhydrophobic vs. super-hydrophilic), a comprehensive experimental study was carried out in the Icing Research Tunnel at Iowa State University (i.e., ISU-IRT) to evaluate the anti-/de-icing performance of the hybrid method with the different coating strategies. It was found that, while both of…
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An Experimental Study on the Effects of the Layout of DBD Plasma Actuators on Its Anti-/De-Icing Performance for Aircraft Icing Mitigation

Iowa State University-Cem Kolbakir, Yang Liu, Haiyang Hu, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Recently developed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma-based anti-icing systems have shown great potential for aircraft icing mitigation. In the present study, the ice accretion experiments were performed on to evaluate the effects of different layouts of DBD plasma actuators on their anti-/de-icing performances for aircraft icing mitigations. An array of DBD plasma actuators were designed and embedded on the surface of a NACA0012 airfoil/wing model in different layout configurations (i.e., different alignment directions of the plasm actuators (e.g., spanwise vs. streamwise), width of the exposed electrodes and the gap between the electrodes) for the experimental study. The experimental study was carried out in the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISUIRT). While the dynamic anti-icing operation is recorded by using a high-resolution imaging system, a high-speed Infrared (IR) thermal imaging camera is used to quantitatively map the temperature distributions over the surface of the airfoil model during the anti-/deicing processes. Results show that, heat dissipation mechanism of the plasma actuator array in either streamwise and spanwise configurations differ one from another noticeably.…
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An Experimental Study on a Hot-Air-Based Anti-/De-Icing System for the Icing Protection of Aero-Engine Inlet Guide Vanes

Iowa State University-Linkai Li, Linchuan Tian, Yang Liu, Hui Hu
Pratt & Whitney-Isaac Hogate
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
In the present study, an experimental investigation was conducted to characterize a hot-air-based anti-/de-icing system for the icing protection of aero-engine inlet guide vanes(IGVs). The experimental study was conducted in a unique icing research tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISU-IRT). A hollowed IGV model embedded with U-shaped hot-air flowing conduit was designed and manufactured for the experimental investigations. During the experiments, while a high-speed imaging system was used to record the dynamic ice accretion or anti-/de-icing process over the surface of the IGV model for the test cases without and with the hot-air supply system being turned on, the corresponding surface temperature distributions on the IGV model were measured quantitatively by using a row of embedded thermocouples. In addition to investigating the characteristics of the convective heat transfer over the surface of the heated IGV model, a comprehensive parametric study was also conducted to evaluate the effects of the operation parameters of the hot-air-based anti-/de-icing system on its performance for IGV icing protection. The acquired ice accretion or anti-de-icing images were coordinated with…
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An Experimental Study to Evaluate Hydro-/Ice-Phobic Coatings for Icing Mitigation over Rotating Aero-engine Fan Blades

Iowa State University-Linchuan Tian, Yang Liu, Linkai Li, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ice accretion on aero-engines, especially on the fan blades, is the very hazardous icing incident due to the potential performance degradation of jet-engines. In the present study, an experimental investigation was conducted to examine the performance of ice-phobic coatings for jet-engine fan icing mitigation. The experimental study was performed in the unique Icing Research Tunnel at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT) with a scaled engine fan model operated under wet glaze and dry rime ice conditions. To evaluate the effects of anti-icing coatings and to acquire the important details of ice accretion and shedding process on fan blade surfaces, a “phase-locked” imaging technique was applied with a high-resolution imaging system. The power input required to drive the engine fan model rotating at a constant prescribed speed was also measured during the ice accretion experiment. It was found that both super-hydrophobic surface (SHS) and ice-phobic coating have its advantage in engine anti-icing. SHS facilitated the blades surface with much less ice, under both glaze icing and rime icing conditions, while ice-phobic coating prevents the large ice chunk…
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An Experimental Study on the Dynamic Ice Accretion Processes on Bridge Cables with Different Surface Modifications

Harbin Institute of Technology-Wenli Chen
Iowa State University-Yang Liu, Yihua Peng, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
An experimental study was conducted to investigate the dynamic ice accretion processes on bridge cables with different surface modifications (i.e., 1. Standard plain, 2. Pattern-indented surface, and 3. helical fillets). The icing experiments were performed in the unique Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISU-IRT). In order to reveal the transient ice accretion processes and the associated aerodynamic loadings on the different cable models under the different icing conditions (i.e., rime vs. glaze), while a high-speed imaging system was used to capture the transient details of the surface water transport and ice accretion over the cable surfaces, a high-accuracy dual-transducer force measurement system was also utilized to measure the aerodynamic loadings acting on the ice accreting cable models. It was found that the addition of surface features (i.e., pattern-indented surface vs. helical fillets) could effectively influence the dynamic ice accretion process and the final ice structures. Based on the temporally-resolved measurements of the aerodynamic drag forces acting on the different cable models, it was found that while the ice accretion on the…
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An Experimental Investigation of a Wind-Driven Water Droplet over the Slippery Liquid Infused Porous Surface

Iowa State University-Liqun Ma, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The promising anti-icing performance of the slippery liquid infused porous surface (SLIPS) has been recently demonstrated for various engineering applications. The runback icing for aircraft and wind turbines could be effectively mitigated considering the timely removal of water droplet by the wind shearing force due to the low adhesion on the SLIPS. In this study, the flow field both inside and around the wind-driven droplet over the SLIPS was experimentally investigated by using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. Previous studies majorly focus on the internal flow pattern before the droplet incipient motion. In this study, the flow field inside a moving droplet was firstly investigated. As a result of the low surface adhesion of the SLIPS, droplet oscillations were eliminated and the droplet internal flow field could be corrected from the optical distortion. Besides the discussion on the wind speed, the droplet viscosity was also studied by varying the water concentration of the glycerin-water solution. It was found that the internal circulation was highly related with the droplet viscosity. The inner circulations within the water…
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Quantification of 3D Ice Structures Accreted on a Wind Turbine Airfoil Model

Iowa State University-Linyue Gao, Ramsankar Veerakumar, Yang Liu, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Accurate quantification of 3D shapes of the complex ice structures accreted on wind turbine blades is highly desirable to develop ice prediction models for more accurate prediction of the aerodynamic performance degradation and power reduction due to the ice accretion on wind turbine blades. In the present study, an experimental investigation was conducted to quantitatively characterize the 3D shapes of the ice structures accreted over a DU91-W2-250 wind turbine airfoil model in the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT). A glaze icing condition and a rime icing condition that wind turbines usually experience in winter were duplicated by using ISU-IRT. A high-resolution non-intrusive 3D scanning system was used to make detailed 3D-shape measurements to quantify the complicated ice structures accreted on the wind turbine airfoil model as a function of the ice accretion time. The measurements results show that the complex 3D shapes of the ice structures accreted over the surfaces of the airfoil model under both glaze icing and rime icing conditions were well captured. It is found that the glaze…
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