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Strategies to Gain the Loss in Power in a Military Diesel Engine Using JP-8 Instead of ULSD

Wayne State University-Prasad D. Raut, Omkar A. Atre, Manan Trivedi, Naeim Henein
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0804
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Department of Defense (DOD) has adopted the use of JP-8 under the “single battlefield fuel” policy. Fuel properties of JP-8 which are different from ULSD include cetane number, density, heating value and compressibility (Bulk modulus). While JP8 has advantages compared to ULSD, related to storage, combustion and lower soot emissions, its use cause a drop in the peak power in some military diesel engines. The engines that has loss in power use the Hydraulically actuated Electronic Unit Injection (HEUI) fuel system. The paper explains in details the operation of HEUI including fuel delivery into the injector and its compression to the high injection pressure before its delivery in the combustion chamber. The effect of fuel compressibility on the volume of the fuel that is injected into the combustion chamber is explained in details. A fuel such as JP-8 which has a lower Bulk modulus is compressed to a smaller volume than ULSD which has a higher Bulk modulus before its delivery in the combustion chamber, and this is the main reason for the drop…
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Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine: Cold Start on Gasoline and Diesel

Wayne State University-Sampad Mukhopadhyay, Sunil Srinivas Badavath, Naeim Henein
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The superior fuel economy of direct injection internal combustion engines (diesel and gasoline) is related to use of a high compression ratio to auto-ignite the fuel and the overall lean combustible mixture. Two of the major problems in diesel engine emissions are the NOx and soot emissions, which are caused by the heterogeneity of the charge and the properties of the diesel fuel. Conventional Direct Injection Spark Ignition Gasoline engines don't have these problems because of the fuel properties particularly its volatility. However, its efficiency and specific power output are limited by the knock, knock produced preignition and the sporadic preignition phenomenon. The Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) engine combines the superior features of the two engines by increasing the compression ratio and use of gasoline as a fuel. One of the main advantages of the GDICI engine is the low combustion temperature and associated low engine out emissions of NOx and Particulates.This paper presents results of an investigation using a high compression ratio, single cylinder, naturally aspirated, high speed, HATZ diesel engine modified…
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Development of a Surrogate for SASOL IPK and Its Validation in Ignition Quality Tester

Wayne State University-Krishnaraj Udayachalam, Manan Trivedi, Ziliang Zheng, Amit Shrestha, Naeim Henein
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
SASOL IPK is a low cetane number synthetic fuel formed from coal by the Fischer-Tropsch process which can be used as an extender to JP8, currently used in military ground vehicles. This paper presents two surrogates developed considering the following criteria: (a) availability of kinetic combustion models for each component, (b) smallest number of components to reduce computation time and cost, (c) matching the following properties of target fuel DCN, distillation curve, density, LHV, MW and H/C ratio. The autoignition and combustion characteristics of the surrogates were validated in IQT according to ASTM D6890-10a. Surrogate formulation strategy involves an equation to calculate DCN of the surrogate mixture from the DCN of each component. The linear equation commonly used for such calculations was modified to include a multiplier, based on regression analysis, for each component to produces DCN values that agree well with the measured DCN in the IQT.
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Autoignition and Combustion of ULSD and JP8 during Cold Starting of a High Speed Diesel Engine

Wayne State University-Sahil Sane, Tamer Badawy, Naeim Henein
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Cold starting problems of diesel engines are caused mainly by the failure of the auto-ignition process or the subsequent combustion of the rest of the charge. The problems include long cranking periods and combustion instability leading to an increase in fuel consumption in addition to the emission of undesirable unburned hydrocarbons which appear in the exhaust as white smoke. The major cause of these problems is the low temperature and pressure of the charge near the end of the compression stroke and/or the poor ignition quality of the fuel. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of cold starting of a high speed diesel engine with ULSD (Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel) and JP8 (Jet Propulsion) fuels at ambient temperature (25°C). A detailed analysis is made of the autoignition and combustion of the two fuels in the first few cycles in the cold start transient. In addition, a comparison is made between these processes for the two fuels during idle operation.
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Development of JP-8 Surrogates and their Validation using Ignition Quality Tester

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

US Army RDECOM-TARDEC-Peter Schihl
Wayne State University-Amit Shrestha, Ziliang Zheng, Tamer Badawy, Naeim Henein
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9077
Published 2014-04-15 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a new approach for the development of six different JP-8 surrogates for application in diesel cycle simulation. The approach involves a step-wise formulation of 2-, 3-, and 4-component surrogates from a list of pure compounds which are selected based on several criteria. A MATLAB code is developed and is used in conjunction with the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) and HYSYS software in order to formulate optimal surrogates.The first part of the results shows a comparison between the calculated and the measured DCNs for six surrogates. The differences in the properties such as the density, volatility, lower heating value, H/C ratio, molecular weight, and threshold sooting index of the surrogates and the JP-8 are also highlighted. This is followed by the evaluation of the surrogates with respect to the target JP-8 fuel. The evaluation is made in terms of ignition delays and the rate of heat release at three different IQT test temperatures. Finally, the test results are examined to evaluate the validity of the development approach and the potential use of the…
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Experimental Study for the Effect of Fuel Properties on the Ion Current, Combustion, and Emission in a High Speed Diesel Engine

Wayne State Univ.-Rojan Mathew George, Tamer Badawy, Naeim Henein
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents experimental study on the impact of using fuels with different physical and chemical properties in a diesel engine. Research is driven towards finding an alternative or extender to the conventional diesel fuel for compression ignition engines. Such alternative fuels have wide ranges of physical and chemical properties which are not suitable for CI engines. Advanced injection systems and control strategies in modern diesel engines permit operation to be extended to a wider range of fuels. Therefore, experimental investigation to understand the effects of different fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions are necessary.The study covers the effect of using different fuels such as JP-8 and Sasol-IPK on a modern automotive diesel engine. The engine used in this study is a 2.0L, 4 cylinders, direct injection diesel engine fitted with piezo-driven injectors. Comparative results of three fuels are presented in terms of performance, fuel consumption, auto-ignition and emission considering ULSD as a baseline fuel. This work aims to identify the possibility of using jet fuels in a modern automotive diesel engine without any…
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Combustion Ionization for Resonance Detection and Mitigation Using Pilot Injection in a Diesel Engine

Wayne State Univ.-Tamer Badawy, Naeim Henein
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Advanced injection systems play a major role in reducing engine out emission in modern diesel engines. One interesting technology is the common rail injection system which is becoming more vital in controlling emission due to its flexibility in injection pressure, timing and number of injection events. Many studies have showed the advantages of using such injection parameters to meet the strict emission and improve engine performance. A glow plug/ ion current sensor was used to measure ionization produced during the combustion process. The ion current signal contains many valuable information including combustion phasing, duration and combustion resonance. In prior publications, it was demonstrated the capability of the ion current to control the combustion phasing and the ability to detect combustion resonance. Therefore, the experimental testing was conducted under controlled combustion phasing using the feedback from the ion current sensor. Since the combustion noise is mainly produced by combustion resonance, the ion current sensor was used to detect combustion resonance in this work.This paper presents a detailed study to characterize the effect of pilot injection quantity…
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Experimental Validation and Combustion Modeling of a JP-8 Surrogate in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

US Army TACOM-Eric Sattler, Peter Schihl
Wayne State Univ.-Amit Shrestha, Umashankar Joshi, Ziliang Zheng, Tamer Badawy, Naeim Henein
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1376
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on a single cylinder engine to validate a two-component JP-8 surrogate. The two-component surrogate was chosen based on a previous investigation where the key properties, such as DCN, volatility, density, and lower heating value, of the surrogate were matched with those of the target JP-8.The matching of the auto-ignition, combustion, and emission characteristics of the surrogate with JP-8 was investigated in an actual diesel engine environment. The engine tests for the validation of the surrogate were conducted at an engine speed of 1500 rpm, a load of 3 bar, and different injection timings. The results for the cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay period, rate of heat release, and the CO, HC, and NOx emissions showed a good match between the surrogate and the target JP-8. However, the engine-out particulate matter for the surrogate was lower than that for the JP-8 at all tested conditions. These findings are presented and discussed in the paper.Additionally, a reduced surrogate fuel model was constructed and was implemented in three-dimensional CFD…
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Role of Volatility in the Development of JP-8 Surrogates for Diesel Engine Application

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

US Army TACOM-Eric Sattler
Wayne State Univ.-Ziliang Zheng, PO-I Lee, Amit Shrestha, Tamer Badawy, Ming-Chia Lai, Naeim Henein
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1389
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Surrogates for JP-8 have been developed in the high temperature gas phase environment of gas turbines. In diesel engines, the fuel is introduced in the liquid phase where volatility plays a major role in the formation of the combustible mixture and autoignition reactions that occur at relatively lower temperatures. In this paper, the role of volatility on the combustion of JP-8 and five different surrogate fuels was investigated in the constant volume combustion chamber of the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT). IQT is used to determine the derived cetane number (DCN) of diesel engine fuels according to ASTM D6890. The surrogate fuels were formulated such that their DCNs matched that of JP-8, but with different volatilities. Tests were conducted to investigate the effect of volatility on the autoignition and combustion characteristics of the surrogates using a detailed analysis of the rate of heat release immediately after the start of injection. In addition, the effect of volatility on the spray dynamics was investigated by Schlieren imaging in an optically accessible rapid compression machine (RCM). The images supported…
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A New Technique to Determine the Burning Velocity in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

GM-Akram Zahdeh
Wayne State Univ.-Shenouda Mekhael, Fadi Estefanous, Naeim Henein
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1176
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Many approaches have been taken to determine the burning velocity in internal combustion engines. Experimentally, the burning velocity has been determined in optically accessible gasoline engines by tracking the propagation of the flame front from the spark plug to the end of the combustion chamber. These experiments are costly as they require special imaging techniques and major modifications in the engine structure. Another approach to determine the burning velocity is from 3D CFD simulation models. These models require basic information about the mechanisms of combustion which are not available for distillate fuels in addition to many assumptions that have to be made to determine the burning velocity. Such models take long periods of computational time for execution and have to be calibrated and validated through experimentation.This paper presents a new technique to determine the burning velocity in a production engine without making any modification in its structure, or use of high speed imaging equipment. This technique is based on the combustion produced ionization measured at two defined locations in the combustion chamber. In the engine…
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