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Hanson, Ronald K.
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Crank-angle-resolved Measurements of Air-fuel Ratio, Temperature, and Liquid Fuel Droplet Scattering in a Direct-injection Gasoline Engine

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Kevin R. Sholes, Kiyotaka Shouji, Tomohiro Chaya
Stanford University-Jay B. Jeffries, Jason M. Porter, Sung Hyun Pyun, Ronald K. Hanson
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline vapor concentration, gas temperature, and liquid fuel droplet scattering were made with three-color infrared absorption in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with premium gasoline. The infrared light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug, allowing measurement at a location adjacent to the spark plug electrode. Two mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency-generation in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) using one signal and two pump lasers operating in the near-infrared (near-IR). A portion of the near-IR signal laser residual provided a simultaneous third, non-resonant, wavelength for liquid droplet detection. This non-resonant signal was used to subtract the influence of droplet scattering from the resonant mid-IR signals to obtain vapor absorption signals in the presence of droplet extinction.The sensor was applied to a direct-injection engine in both early-injection homogeneous charge and late-injection stratified charge operation. For the early-injection cases, liquid droplets were detected only during a brief period of the intake stroke just after start of injection. Late in the…
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An In-cylinder Laser Absorption Sensor for Crank-angle-resolved Measurements of Gasoline Concentration and Temperature

SAE International Journal of Engines

Nissan Motor Co Ltd-Kevin R. Sholes, Kiyotaka Shouji, Tomohiro Chaya
Stanford Univ.-Jay B. Jeffries, Jason M. Porter, Sung Hung Pyun, Ronald K. Hanson
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2251
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline concentration and gas temperature were made with two-color mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser absorption in a production spark-ignition engine (Nissan MR20DE, 2.0L, 4 cyl, MPI with premium gasoline). The mid-IR light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug. The absorption line-of-sight was a 5.3 mm optical path located closely adjacent to the ignition spark providing spatially resolved absorption. Two sensor wavelengths were selected in the strong bands associated with the carbon-hydrogen (C-H) stretching vibration near 3.4 μm, which have an absorption ratio that is strongly temperature dependent. Fuel concentration and temperature were determined simultaneously from the absorption at these two wavelengths. The two mid-IR laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency-generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal using one signal and two pump lasers. The pump lasers were modulated at different frequencies allowing frequency demultiplexing of the laser light transmitted though the spark plug probe, providing simultaneous absorption signals at the two mid-IR wavelengths. A model of the absorption cross…
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Dual-Wavelength PLIF Measurements of Temperature and Composition in an Optical HCCI Engine with Negative Valve Overlap

SAE International Journal of Engines

Sandia National Laboratories-Russell P. Fitzgerald, Richard R. Steeper
Stanford University-Jordan A. Snyder, Ronald K. Hanson
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0661
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Negative valve overlap (NVO) is a valve strategy employed to retain and recompress residual burned gases to assist HCCI combustion, particularly in the difficult regime of low-load operation. NVO allows the retention of large quantities of hot residual burned gases as well as the possibility of fuel addition for combustion control purposes. Reaction of fuel injected during NVO increases charge temperature, but in addition could produce reformed fuel species that may affect main combustion phasing. The strategy holds potential for controlling and extending low-load HCCI combustion.The goal of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of applying two-wavelength PLIF of 3-pentanone to obtain simultaneous, in-cylinder temperature and composition images during different parts of the HCCI/NVO cycle. Measurements are recorded during the intake and main compression strokes, as well as during the more challenging periods of NVO recompression and re-expansion. To improve measurement quality, effects of diagnostic uncertainty and fluorescence interference are quantified. Temperature, fuel, and EGR images are captured for a range of NVO operating conditions, including main and NVO fuel-injection timings as well total…
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Two-Wavelength PLIF Diagnostic for Temperature and Composition

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Sandia National Laboratories-Richard R. Steeper
Stanford University-David A. Rothamer, Jordan A. Snyder, Ronald K. Hanson
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-1067
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Laser excitation wavelengths for two-line planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of 3-pentanone have been optimized for simultaneous imaging of temperature and composition under engine-relevant conditions. Validation of the diagnostic was performed in a motored optical IC engine seeded homogeneously with 3-pentanone. PLIF measurements of the uniform mixture during the compression stroke were used to measure the average temperature and to access the random uncertainty in the measurements. To determine the accuracy of the temperature measurements, experimental average temperatures were compared to values computed assuming isentropic compression and to the output of a tuned 1-D engine simulation. The comparison indicated that the absolute accuracy of the temperature measurements is better than ±5%. Probability density functions (PDFs) calculated from the single-shot images were used to estimate the precision of the measurements. The PDFs determined from the images had standard deviations as low as ±12 K for the temperature measurements. The diagnostic was demonstrated under conditions with controlled amounts of stratification induced by injection of cold unseeded fluid into the hot intake stream. Finally, the diagnostic was successfully tested…
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Simultaneous Measurement of In-Cylinder Temperature and Residual Gas Concentration in the Vicinity of the Spark Plug by Wavelength Modulation Infrared Absorption

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Akihiko Kakuho, Kevin R. Sholes, Yutaka Hashizume, Shohei Takatani, Tomonori Urushihara
Physical Science Inc.-Mark G. Allen
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a new measurement technique for in-cylinder gas temperature and residual gas concentration during the compression stroke of an internal combustion (IC) engine. This technique is based on the infrared absorption of water vapor by a wavelength modulated laser. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f) was adopted to enable the short-path measurements over a wide range of temperatures and pressures corresponding to the late compression stroke in a typical automotive engine. The WMS-2f signal is detected through a bandpass filter at a width of 7.5 kHz, enabling crank angle-resolved measurements. The temperature is determined from the ratio of optical absorption for two overtone transitions of water vapor in the intake gas mixture, and the H2O concentration is determined from this inferred temperature and the absorption for one of the transitions. The measurements sample a short-path region (5 mm) of the in-cylinder gases near the spark plug, which has been modified to provide optical access. Crank angle-resolved measurements are performed in a mass-production type engine.
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Simultaneous Measurement of In-Cylinder Temperature and Residual Gas Concentration in the Vicinity of the Spark Plug by Wavelength Modulation Infrared Absorption

Nissan Motor-Akihiko Kakuho, Kevin R. Sholes, Yutaka Hashizume, Tomonori Urushihara
Nissan Research & Development Inc.-Shohei Takatani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2006-08-0435
Published 2006-09-27 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This paper presents a new measurement technique for in-cylinder gas temperature and residual gas concentration during the compression stroke of an internal combustion (IC) engine. This technique is based on the infrared absorption of water vapor by a wavelength-modulated laser. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f) was adopted to enable the short-path measurements over a wide range of temperatures and pressures corresponding to the late compression stroke in a typical automotive engine. The WMS-2f signal is detected through a bandpass filter at a width of 7.5 kHz enabling crank angle-resolved measurements. The temperature is determined from the ratio of optical absorption for two overtone transitions of water vapor in the intake gas mixture and the H2O concentration is determined from this inferred temperature and the absorption for one of the transitions. The measurements sample a short-path region (5 mm) of the in-cylinder gases near the spark plug, which has been modified to provide optical access. Crank angle-resolved measurements are performed in a mass-production-type engine.