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Isobaric Combustion at a Low Compression Ratio

King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Aibolat Dyuisenakhmetov, Harsh Goyal, Moez Ben Houidi, Rafig Babayev, Bengt Johansson
Saudi Aramco-Jihad Badra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0797
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In a previous study, it was shown that isobaric combustion cycle, achieved by multiple injection strategy, is more favorable than conventional diesel cycle for the double compression expansion engine (DCEE) concept. In spite of lower effective expansion ratio, the indicated efficiencies of isobaric cycles were approximately equal to those of a conventional diesel cycle. Isobaric cycles had lower heat transfer losses and higher exhaust losses which are advantageous for DCEE since additional exhaust energy can be converted into useful work in the expander. In this study, the performance of low-pressure isobaric combustion (IsoL) and high-pressure isobaric combustion (IsoH) in terms of gross indicated efficiency, energy flow distribution and engine-out emissions is compared to the conventional diesel combustion (CDC) but at a relatively lower compression ratio of 11.5. The experiments are conducted in a Volvo D13C500 single-cylinder heavy-duty engine using standard EU diesel fuel. The current study consists of two sets of experiments. In the first set, the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is studied at different combustion modes using the same air-fuel ratio obtained…
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Low- to High-Temperature Reaction Transition in a Small-Bore Optical Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

CCDC Army Research Laboratory, USA-Kenneth S. Kim, Chol-Bum Kweon
The University of New South Wales, Australia-Harsh Goyal, Yilong Zhang, Sanghoon Kook
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-05-0031
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
This study shows the development of low-temperature and high-temperature reactions in a gasoline-fuelled compression ignition (GCI) engine realizing partially premixed combustion for high efficiency and low emissions. The focus is how the ignition occurs during the low- to high-temperature reaction transition and how it varies due to single- and double-injection strategies. In an optically accessible, single-cylinder small-bore diesel engine equipped with a common-rail fuel injection system, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of formaldehyde (HCHO-PLIF), hydroxyl (OH-PLIF), and fuel (fuel-PLIF) has been performed. This was complemented with high-speed imaging of combustion luminosity and chemiluminescence imaging of cool flame and OH*. The diagnostics were performed for two different fuels including conventional diesel as a reference case and then a kerosene-based jet fuel which is a low-ignition quality fuel with cetane number of 30, firstly with single near top dead center (TDC) injection and then a double-injection strategy implementing very early injection and late injection in the same engine. For diesel combustion, it is shown that the cool-flame and HCHO signals appear from the jet axis before spreading…
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Triple Injection Strategies for Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Combustion in a Single-Cylinder Small-Bore Common-Rail Diesel Engine

Imagineering Inc.-Yuji Ikeda
The University of New South Wales-Xinyu Liu, Harsh Goyal, Sanghoon Kook
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Implementing triple injection strategies in partially premixed charge-based gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines has shown to achieve improved engine efficiency and reduced NOx and smoke emissions in many previous studies. While the impact of the triple injections on engine performance and engine-out emissions are well known, their role in controlling the mixture homogeneity and charge premixedness is currently poorly understood. The present study shows correspondence between the triple injection strategies and mixture homogeneity/premixedness through the experimental tests of second/third injection proportion and their timing variations with an aim to explain the observed GCI engine performance and emission trends. The experiments were conducted in a single cylinder, small-bore common-rail diesel engine fuelled with a commercial gasoline fuel of 95 research octane number (RON) and running at 2000 rpm and 830 kPa indicated mean effective pressure conditions. While the first injection proportion and timing were fixed at 40% and 170 °CA bTDC, the second injection proportion was varied between 5 and 20% (i.e. third injection of 40~55%) and the timing was varied from 20 to 80 °CA…
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In-Cylinder Soot Reduction Using Microwave Generated Plasma in an Optically Accessible Small-Bore Diesel Engine

Imagineering Inc-Srinivas Padala, Minh Khoi Le, Yuji Ikeda
The University of New South Wales-Hu Chien Su, Harsh Goyal, Lewis Clark, Sanghoon Kook, Evatt Hawkes, Qing Nian Chan
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The present study explores the effect of in-cylinder generated non-thermal plasma on hydroxyl and soot development. Plasma was generated using a newly developed Microwave Discharge Igniter (MDI), a device which operates based on the principle of microwave resonation and has the potential to accentuate the formation of active radical pools as well as suppress soot formation while stimulating soot oxidation. Three diagnostic techniques were employed in a single-cylinder small-bore optical diesel engine, including chemiluminescence imaging of electronically excited hydroxyl (OH*), planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of OH (OH-PLIF) and planar laser induced incandescence (PLII) imaging of soot. While investigating the behaviour of MDI discharge under engine motoring conditions, it was found that plasma-induced OH* signal size and intensity increased with higher in-cylinder pressures albeit with shorter lifetime and lower breakdown consistency. Results also indicated that a decreasing pressure gradient extends the lifetime of plasma-induced OH* signals while an increasing pressure gradient suppresses plasma-induced OH* formation and increases the rate of signal decay. Studies on the effect of MDI at the start of high temperature reaction…
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Influence of Engine Speed on Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Combustion in a Single-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Imagineering Inc.-Srinivas Padala, Yuji Ikeda
The University of New South Wales-Harsh Goyal, Sanghoon Kook, Evatt Hawkes, Qing Nian Chan
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The present study aims to evaluate the effects of engine speed on gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion implementing double injection strategies. The double injection comprises of near-BDC first injection for the formation of a premixed charge and near-TDC second injection for the combustion phasing control. The engine performance and emissions testing of GCI combustion has been conducted in a single-cylinder light-duty diesel engine equipped with a common-rail injection system and fuelled with a conventional gasoline with 91 RON. The double injection strategy was investigated for various engine speeds ranging 1200~2000 rpm and the second injection timings between 12°CA bTDC and 3°CA aTDC. From the tests, GCI combustion shows high sensitivity to the second injection timing and combustion phasing variations such that the advanced second injection causes advanced combustion phasing and extended pre-combustion mixing time, and thereby increasing engine efficiency and decreasing ISFC. This leads to the reduced smoke/uHC/CO emissions but increased combustion noise and NOx emissions, similar to the trends in conventional diesel combustion. It is found that the increased engine speed requires a higher…
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Double Injection Strategies for Ethanol-Fuelled Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Combustion in a Single-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

The University of New South Wales-Changhwan Woo, Harsh Goyal, Sanghoon Kook, Evatt R. Hawkes, Qing Nian Chan
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Ethanol has been selected as a fuel for gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines realising partially premixed charge combustion, considering its higher resistance to auto-ignition, higher evaporative cooling and oxygen contents than widely used gasoline, all of which could further improve already high efficiency and low smoke/NOx emissions of GCI engines. The in-cylinder phenomena and engine-out emissions were measured in a single-cylinder automotive-size common-rail diesel engine with a special emphasis on double injection strategies implementing early first injection near BDC and late second injection near TDC. Three key parameters are investigated to optimise the double injection strategy including the proportion of the first and second injection mass, the first injection timing, and the second injection timing, while other operating conditions were held constant at the engine speed of 2000 rpm, intake air temperature of 80°C, common-rail pressure of 50 MPa, and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of about 950 kPa. From the experiments, it is found that the higher proportion of the first injection results in higher in-cylinder pressure, pressure rise rate, and apparent heat release…
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