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Visual Analyses of End of Injection Liquid Structures and the Behaviour of Nozzle Surface-Bound Fuel in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

BP International Ltd.-Martin Gold, Richard Pearson
University of Brighton-Dan Sykes, Guillaume de Sercey, Cyril Crua
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
For efficiency, the majority of modern diesel engines implement multiple injection strategies, increasing the frequency of transient injection phases and thus, end of injection (EOI) events. Recent advances in diagnostic techniques have identified several EOI phenomena pertinent to nozzle surface wetting as a precursor for deposit formation and a potential contributor towards pollutant emissions. To investigate the underlying processes, highspeed optical measurements at the microscopic scale were performed inside a motored diesel engine under low load/idling conditions. Visualisation of the injector nozzle surface and near nozzle region permitted an indepth analysis of the post-injection phenomena and the behaviour of fuel films on the nozzle surface when the engine is not fired. Inspection of the high-speed video data enabled an interpretation of the fluid dynamics leading to surface wetting, elucidating the mechanisms of deposition and spreading. As the needle re-seated, the abrupt pressure drop inhibited atomisation. Large, slow moving, liquid structures were released into the cylinder with the capability of impinging on nearby surfaces, creating localised fuel rich regions, or escaping through the exhaust and contributing…
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Fast NGC: A New On-Line Technique for Fuel Flow Measurement

BP International Ltd.-Martin Gold, Richard Pearson
University of Oxford-Felix Leach, Martin Davy, Manus Henry, Maruthi Rochishnu Malladi, Michael Tombs, Feibiao Zhou
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Knowledge of fuel mass injected in an individual cycle is important for engine performance and modelling. Currently direct measurements of fuel flow to individual cylinders of an engine are not possible on-engine or in real-time due to a lack of available appropriate measurement techniques. The objective of this work was to undertake real-time Coriolis fuel flow measurement using GDI injectors on a rig observing fuel mass flow rate within individual fuel injections. This paper evaluates the potential of this technology - combining Coriolis Flow Meters (CFMs) with Prism signal processing together known as Fast Next Generation Coriolis (Fast NGC), and serves as a basis for future transitions on-engine applications. A rig-based feasibility study has been undertaken injecting gasoline through a GDI injector at 150 bar in both single shot mode and at a simulated engine speeds of 1788 and 2978 rpm. The results show that these injections can, in principle, be observed. In addition a number of features of the Fast NGC system unique to gasoline are discussed, and the repeatability of the technique is preliminarily assessed.…
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Simulation and Measurement of Transient Fluid Phenomena within Diesel Injection

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

BP International Ltd.-Martin Gold, Richard Pearson
City University London-Mithun Murali-Girija, Foivos Koukouvinis, Manolis Gavaises
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0066
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Rail pressures of modern diesel fuel injection systems have increased significantly over recent years, greatly improving atomisation of the main fuel injection event and air utilisation of the combustion process. Continued improvement in controlling the process of introducing fuel into the cylinder has led to focussing on fluid phenomena related to transient response. High-speed microscopy has been employed to visualise the detailed fluid dynamics around the near nozzle region of an automotive diesel fuel injector, during the opening, closing and post injection events. Complementary computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have been undertaken to elucidate the interaction of the liquid and gas phases during these highly transient events, including an assessment of close-coupled injections.Microscopic imaging shows the development of a plug flow in the initial stages of injection, with rapid transition into a primary breakup regime, transitioning to a finely atomised spray and subsequent vaporisation of the fuel. During closuring of the injector the spray collapses, with evidence of swirling breakup structures together with unstable ligaments of fuel breaking into large slow-moving droplets. This leads to…
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The Performance of a Modern Vehicle on a Variety of Alcohol-Gasoline Fuel Blends

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BP International Ltd-John Williams, Martin Gold, Rana Ali
Mahle Powertrain, Ltd.-Philip A. Stansfield, Andre Bisordi, Dave OudeNijeweme
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1272
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
An unmodified, conventionally fuelled, 2009 Class D vehicle with a 2.0L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine was operated on a range of gasoline, gasoline-ethanol and gasoline-butanol fuel blends over NEDC drive cycles and WOT power curves on a chassis dynamometer. Engine performance, engine management system parameters and vehicle out emissions were recorded to investigate the response of a current state-of-the-art technology vehicle to various alcohol fuel blends.The vehicle fired on all fuels and was capable of adapting its long term fuelling trim to cope with the increased fuel flow demand for alcohol fuels up to E85. Over the NEDC tests, the volumetric fuel consumption was very strongly related to the calorific content of the fuel. CO and NOx emissions were largely unaffected for the mid alcohol blends, but CO emissions decreased and NOx emissions increased significantly for the high alcohol fuels. THC emissions were largely unaffected. Particulate mass initially reduced as the alcohol content increased, but then increased significantly for the higher alcohols. This was likely due to the poor vaporisation during cold start.During the…
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High-Speed Microscopic Imaging of the Initial Stage of Diesel Spray Formation and Primary Breakup

BP Global Fuels Technology-Martin Gold, Cassandra Higham
University of Brighton-Cyril Crua, Tenzin Shoba, Morgan Heikal
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
The formation and breakup of diesel sprays was investigated experimentally on a common rail diesel injector using a long range microscope. The objectives were to further the fundamental understanding of the processes involved in the initial stage of diesel spray formation.Tests were conducted at atmospheric conditions and on a rapid compression machine with motored in-cylinder peak pressures up to 8 MPa, and injection pressures up to 160 MPa. The light source and long range imaging optics were optimized to produce blur-free shadowgraphic images of sprays with a resolution of 0.6 μm per pixel, and a viewing region of 768x614 μm. Such fine spatial and temporal resolutions allowed the observation of previously unreported shearing instabilities and stagnation point on the tip of diesel jets. The tip of the fuel jet was seen to take the shape of an oblate spheroidal cap immediately after leaving the nozzle, due to the combination of transverse expansion of the jet and the physical properties of the fuel. The spheroidal cap was found to consist of residual fuel trapped in the…
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A Study of Gasoline-Alcohol Blended Fuels in an Advanced Turbocharged DISI Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BP Global Fuels Technology-Martin Gold, John Rogerson, Craig Goodfellow
MAHLE Powertrain Ltd-Alasdair Cairns, Phil Stansfield, Neil Fraser, Hugh Blaxill
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0138
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
This work was concerned with evaluation of the performance and emissions of potential future biofuels during advanced spark ignition engine operation. The fuels prepared included three variants of gasoline, three gasoline-ethanol blends and a gasoline-butanol fuel altogether covering a range of oxygen mass concentrations and octane numbers to identify key influencing parameters.The combustion of the fuels was evaluated in a turbocharged multi-cylinder direct fuel injection research engine equipped with a standard three-way catalyst and an external EGR circuit that allowed use of either cooled or non-cooled EGR. The engine operating effects studied at both part and boosted high load conditions included fuel injection timing and pressure, excess air tolerance, EGR tolerance and spark retard limits. A number of blends were also mapped at suitable sites across the European drive cycle under downsized engine conditions. Relative in-vehicle fuel economies were then determined via drive cycle simulation and compared to a naturally aspirated gasoline PFI engine.
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Airflow and Fuel Spray Interaction in a Gasoline DI Engine

Ricardo UK-Gang Li, Martin Gold
University of Brighton-Paul Alexander, Steven Begg, Morgan Heikal
Published 2005-05-11 by SAE International in United States
Two optical techniques together with a CFD simulation have been used to study the interaction of intake airflow with the injected fuel spray in a motored direct injection gasoline engine. The combustion chamber was of a pent-roof construction with the side-mounted injector located low down between the inlet valves injecting at a 54° angle to the cylinder axis. The two-dimensional piston bowl shape allowed optical access for the Mie scatter technique to be used to investigate the liquid fuel behaviour in the central axial plane of the cylinder lying midway between the two inlet valves and passing through the centre line of the injector nozzle. A second set of images was obtained using backlighting, this time looking through the glass cylinder liner directly towards the injector. The in-cylinder simulation was run using the VECTIS software. Measurements and simulations were conducted for a range of early SOI timings between 20° and 80° ATDC. The results demonstrated clearly that the incoming airflow tended to flatten the jet and constrain it towards its centreline.
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PDA Characterisation of Dense Diesel Sprays Using a Common-Rail Injection System

Ricardo Consulting Engineers-Martin Gold
University of Brighton - UK-Julien Lacoste, Cyril Crua, Morgan Heikal, Dave Kennaird
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
To meet the future low emission targets for Diesel engines, engineers are optimising both the fuel injection and after treatment systems fitted to Diesel engines. In order to optimise the fuel injection system there is a need to characterize the fuel spray for a given injection nozzle geometry and injection pressure/duration. Modern Diesel common rail systems produce very dense sprays, making in-cylinder investigation particularly difficult. In this study the measurement of droplet sizes and velocities in dense Diesel sprays has been investigated using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). PDA has been proven to be a valuable technique in providing an understanding of the structure and characteristics of liquid sprays in many studies. It is often applied to finely atomised and dispersed particle flows. However, the application of PDA to dense sprays is complex and therefore the measurements reported in the literature are performed under conditions that are not representative of modern Diesel engines.This paper reports both on the processes undertaken to optimise a classic PDA system so that it may be used to gather data in…
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Air-Fuel Mixing in a Homogeneous Charge DI Gasoline Engine

Ricardo-Martin Gold, John Stokes, Robert Morgan
University of Brighton-Morgan Heikal, Guillaume de Sercey, Steve Begg
Published 2001-03-05 by SAE International in United States
For optimum efficiency, the direct injection (DI) gasoline engine requires two operating modes to cover the full load/speed map. For lower loads and speeds, stratified charge operation can be used, while homogeneous charge is required for high loads and speeds. This paper has focused its attention on the latter of these modes, where the performance is highly dependent on the quality of the fuel spray, evaporation and the air-fuel mixture preparation.Results of quantitative and qualitative Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements are presented, together with shadow-graph spray imaging, made within an optically accessed DI gasoline engine. These are compared with previously acquired air flow measurements, at various injection timings, and with engine performance and emissions data obtained in a fired single cylinder non-optical engine, having an identical cylinder head and piston crown geometry.
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Application of Optical Techniques to the Study of Mixture Preparation in Direct Injection Gasoline Engines and Validation of a CFD Model

Ricardo Consulting Engineers-Martin Gold, Gang Li, Steve Sapsford, John Stokes
Published 2000-03-06 by SAE International in United States
The performance of a direct injection gasoline engine (G-DI) is highly dependent on the quality of the air-fuel mixture preparation. This is of particular importance when operating at a stratified charge condition, where the ideal mixture distribution would be a stoichiometric region around the spark plug, surrounded by air. To achieve this ideal situation over a wide range of speeds and loads is extremely difficult, requiring an understanding of the fuel spray, the in-cylinder air motion and their interactions.This paper presents the results of Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements made both within an optically accessed direct injection gasoline engine and under atmospheric conditions. The experimental results are compared with those of a VECTIS Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the same engine. A good correlation between experimental data and simulation results means that VECTIS can be used confidently to assess the ability of different G-DI combustion systems to produce a stratified air-fuel mixture.
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