The SAE MOBILUS platform will continue to be accessible and populated with high quality technical content during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. x

Your Selections

Franke, Michael
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Investigation of Diesel/Natural Gas RCCI Combustion Using Multiple Reaction Mechanisms at Various Engine Operating Conditions

FEV North America Inc.-Mufaddel Dahodwala, Satyum Joshi, Erik Koehler, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
Michigan Technological University-Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0801
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Past experimental studies conducted by the current authors on a 13 liter 16.7:1 compression ratio heavy-duty diesel engine have shown that diesel /natural gas Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion targeting low NOx emissions becomes progressively difficult to control as the engine load is increased due to difficulty in controlling reactivity levels at higher loads. For the current study, CFD investigations were conducted using the SAGE combustion solver in Converge with the application of Rahimi mechanism. Studies were conducted at a load of 5 bar BMEP to validate the simulation results against RCCI test data. In the low load study, it was found that the Rahimi mechanism was not able to predict the RCCI combustion behavior for diesel injection timings advanced beyond 30bTDC. This behavior was found at multiple engine speed and load points. To resolve this, multiple reaction mechanisms were evaluated and a new reaction mechanism that combines the GRI Mech 3.0 mechanism with the Chalmers mechanism was proposed. This mechanism was found to accurately predict the ignition delay and combustion behavior with early…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Trade-off Analysis and Systematic Optimization of Heavy-Duty Diesel Hybrid Powertrain

FEV North America Inc.-Satyum Joshi, Mufaddel Dahodwala, Erik W. Koehler, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
Michigan Technological University-Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0847
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, while significant progress has been made in development of hybrid and battery electric vehicles for passenger car and light-duty applications to meet future fuel economy targets, application of hybrid powertrains to heavy-duty truck applications has been very limited. The relatively lower energy and power density of batteries in comparison to diesel fuel as well as the operating profiles of most of the heavy-duty trucks make the application of hybrid powertrain for these applications more challenging. The high torque and power requirements of heavy-duty trucks over a long operating range, the majority of which is at constant cruise point, along with a high payback period, complexity, cost, weight and range anxiety, make the hybrid and battery electric solution less attractive than a conventional powertrain. However, certain heavy-duty applications, such as class 6-7 urban vocational trucks, can benefit from hybridization due to their transient operating profiles and relatively lower vehicle weight. While many studies have quantified the fuel consumption benefits of hybridization in this segment, very few studies have outlined the arduous process of…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Integration of an ORC Waste Heat Recovery with Electrification and Supercharging through Use of a Planetary Gear System for a Class 8 Tractor Application

FEV North America, Inc.-Satyum Joshi, Mufaddel Dahodwala, Erik Koehler, FNU Dhanraj, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
Michigan Technological Univ-Jeffrey Naber
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A novel approach to the Integration of Turbocompounding/WHR, Electrification and Supercharging technologies (ITES) to reduce fuel consumption in a medium heavy-duty diesel engine was previously published by FEV. This paper describes a modified approach to ITES to reduce fuel consumption on a heavy-duty diesel engine applied in a Class 8 tractor.The original implementation of the ITES incorporated a turbocompound turbine as the means for waste heat recovery. In this new approach, the turbocompound unit connected to the sun gear of the planetary gear set has been replaced by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbine expander. The secondary compressor and the electric motor-generator are connected to the ring gear and the carrier gear respectively. The ITES unit is equipped with dry clutch and band brake allowing flexibility in mechanical and electrical integration of the ORC expander, secondary compressor and electric motor-generator to the engine. This approach supports electrical integration of ORC expander when the turbine power output is low and mechanical/power-split integration when the turbine power output is high. At low engine speeds and high loads,…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Strategies for Meeting Phase 2 GHG and Ultra-Low NOx Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

FEV Inc.-Mufaddel Dahodwala, Satyum Joshi, Erik W. Koehler, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1429
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
When considered along with Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) requirements, the proposed Air Resource Board (ARB) nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission limit of 0.02 g/bhp-hr will be very challenging to achieve as the trade-off between fuel consumption and NOx emissions is not favorable. To meet any future ultra-low NOx emission regulation, the NOx conversion efficiency during the cold start of the emission test cycles needs to be improved. In such a scenario, apart from changes in aftertreatment layout and formulation, additional heating measures will be required.In this article, a physics-based model for an advanced aftertreatment system comprising of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), an SCR-catalyzed diesel particulate filter (SDPF), a stand-alone selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and an ammonia slip catalyst (ASC) was calibrated against experimental data. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate various advanced aftertreatment system configurations that included the application of an electrically heated catalyst, mini-burner, fuel dosing, passive NOx adsorber (PNA), and ammonia injection. The advanced aftertreatment system capable of meeting the 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOx emission limit with minimum fuel consumption penalty…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

In-Use Compliance Opportunity for Diesel Powertrains

FEV Europe GmbH-Marcel Romijn
FEV GmbH-Korfer Thomas
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In-use compliance under LEV III emission standards, GHG, and fuel economy targets beyond 2025 poses a great opportunity for all ICE-based propulsion systems, especially for light-duty diesel powertrain and aftertreatment enhancement. Though diesel powertrains feature excellent fuel-efficiency, robust and complete emissions controls covering any possible operational profiles and duty cycles has always been a challenge. Significant dependency on aftertreatment calibration and configuration has become a norm. With the onset of hybridization and downsizing, small steps of improvement in system stability have shown a promising avenue for enhancing fuel economy while continuously improving emissions robustness. In this paper, a study of current key technologies and associated emissions robustness will be discussed followed by engine and aftertreatment performance target derivations for LEV III compliant powertrains. The core of the discussion will be focused on identifying opportunities in engine and aftertreatment hardware and controls to position the diesel applications appropriately for future in-use compliance. Additionally, the authors will discuss the potential diesel powertrain hardware enhancements that could deliver improved emissions robustness while saving fuel, in real-world operation. Since…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Novel Approach to Integration of Turbocompounding, Electrification and Supercharging Through Use of Planetary Gear System

FEV NA, Inc.-Satyum Joshi, Mufaddel Dahodwala, Erik W. Koehler, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
Michigan Technological University-Jeffrey Naber
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Technologies that provide potential for significant improvements in engine efficiency include, engine downsizing/downspeeding (enabled by advanced boosting systems such as an electrically driven compressor), waste heat recovery through turbocompounding or organic Rankine cycle and 48 V mild hybridization. FEV’s Integrated Turbocompounding/Waste Heat Recovery (WHR), Electrification and Supercharging (FEV-ITES) is a novel approach for integration of these technologies in a single unit. This approach provides a reduced cost, reduced space claim and an increase in engine efficiency, when compared to the independent integration of each of these technologies.This approach is enabled through the application of a planetary gear system. Specifically, a secondary compressor is connected to the ring gear, a turbocompounding turbine or organic Rankine cycle (ORC) expander is connected to the sun gear, and an electric motor/generator is connected to the carrier gear. The planetary gear system is equipped with a dry clutch and a band brake allowing flexibility in mechanical and electrical integration of the turbocompound turbine, secondary compressor and electric motor/generator to the engine. The system provides the ability to do electrical integration of…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Meeting 2025 CAFE Standards for LDT with Fuel-Efficient Diesel Powertrains - Approaches and Solutions

FEV GmbH-Werner Bick, Christoph Menne
FEV Group Holding GmbH-Thomas Koerfer
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In view of changing climatic conditions all over the world, Green House Gas (GHG) saving related initiatives such as reducing the CO2 emissions from the mobility and transportation sectors have gained in importance. Therefore, with respect to the large U.S. market, the corresponding legal authorities have defined aggressive and challenging targets for the upcoming time frame. Due to several aspects and conditions, like hesitantly acting clients regarding electrically powered vehicles or low prices for fossil fuels, convincing and attractive products have to be developed to merge legal requirements with market constraints. This is especially valid for the market segment of Light-Duty vehicles, like SUV’S and Pick-Up trucks, which are in high demand. The modern DI Diesel engine has gained an increasing market share in the recent 25 years in the European market and has converted from a niche application to an established, highly appreciated propulsion system in the Light-Duty vehicle segment, covering passenger car as well as light commercial applications. In vehicle classes with high market penetration this low CO2 concept offers a substantial contribution…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Lower Emissions in Commercial Diesel Engines through Waste Heat Recovery

FEV North America Inc.-Yousef Jeihouni, Michael Franke
RWTH Aachen University-Katharina Eichler
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
In order to comply with demanding Greenhous Gas (GHG) standards, future automotive engines employ advanced engine technologies including waste heat recovery (WHR) systems. A waste heat recovery system converts part of engine wasted exergies to useful work which can be fed back to the engine. Utilizing this additional output power leads to lower specific fuel consumption and CO2 emission when the total output power equals the original engine output power. Engine calibration strategies for reductions in specific fuel consumption typically results in a natural increase of NOx emissions. The utilization of waste heat recovery systems provides a pathway which gives both reduction in emissions and reduction in specific fuel consumption.According to DOE (Department of Energy), US heavy-duty truck engines’ technology need to be upgraded towards higher brake thermal efficiencies (BTE). DOE target is BTE>55% for Class-8 heavy-duty vehicles in the United States. On the other side, the emissions legislation is currently under review in California aiming at around 80% reduction in NOx emission to improve air quality according to California Air Resources Board (CARB). The…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Evaluation of System Configurations for Downsizing a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for Non-Road Applications

SAE International Journal of Engines

FEV NA, Inc.-Mufaddel Dahodwala, Satyum Joshi, Hari Krishnamoorthy, Erik W. Koehler, Michael Franke
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-8058
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
In recent years there has been a successful application of engine downsizing in the passenger car market, using boosting technologies to achieve higher specific power and improve fuel economy. Downsizing has also been applied in heavy-duty diesel engines for the on-highway market to improve fuel economy, motivated in part by CO2 emission limits in place under Phase 1 greenhouse gas (GHG) legislation. In the non-road market, with Tier 4 emission standards already being met and no current plan for a GHG emission requirement, there has been less activity in engine downsizing and the drivers for this approach may be different from their on-highway counterparts. For instance, manufacturers may consider emission regulation break points as a motivation for engine displacement targets.Many non-road applications demand a relatively high low-end torque and support the use of higher displacement engines. For these applications it can be more challenging to apply downsizing strategies while meeting the operation requirements of the machine, such as load factor. However, if successful, downsizing in these applications and reducing the engine size can provide improvements…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Experimental and Computational Analysis of Diesel-Natural Gas RCCI Combustion in Heavy-Duty Engines

FEV NA, Inc.-Mufaddel Dahodwala, Satyum Joshi, Erik Koehler, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Substitution of diesel fuel with natural gas in heavy-duty diesel engines offers significant advantages in terms of operating cost, as well as NOx, PM emissions and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the challenges of high THC and CO emissions, combustion stability, exhaust temperatures and pressure rise rates limit the substitution levels across the engine operating map and necessitate an optimized combustion strategy.Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion has shown promise in regard to improving combustion efficiency at low and medium loads and simultaneously reducing NOx emissions at higher loads. RCCI combustion exploits the difference in reactivity between two fuels by introducing a less reactive fuel, such as natural gas, along with air during the intake stroke and igniting the air-CNG mixture by injecting a higher reactivity fuel, such as diesel, later in the compression stroke. Recent studies to optimize dual fuel diesel-CNG RCCI combustion have primarily focused on the simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot emissions. However, further investigation is needed to outline the in-cylinder conditions that are required in order for RCCI combustion to proceed.…
Annotation ability available