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Ebert, Sheila
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Seatbelt Entanglement: Field Analysis, Countermeasure Development, and Subject Evaluation of Devices Intended to Reduce Risk

Tool Inc.-Jason Sidman, Bill Liteplo
UMTRI-Kathleen DeSantis Klinich, Sheila Ebert, Laura Malik, Miriam A. Manary
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Since 2000, over 200 rear seat occupants have become entangled in the seatbelt when they inadvertently switched it from emergency locking mode (ELR) to automatic locking mode (ALR). Since a method is needed to lock the seatbelt when installing child restraint systems (CRS), the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) commissioned tool, inc. to develop prototype devices that could reduce the risk of seatbelt entanglement resulting from the lockability requirement. A field analysis of entanglement incidents was first conducted to inform countermeasure design. Prototype devices were developed and evaluated through testing with volunteer subjects in comparison to standard seatbelt systems by assessing how different designs would be used to install CRS, the quality of the resulting installations, how users would disentangle a trapped child surrogate, as well as to identify volunteer experience when using the belts themselves. Four prototype devices were evaluated in two phases of testing conducted at the UMTRI. All four prototype devices had shorter disentanglement times than trials with the standard seatbelt, but there was not a statistically significant difference between the…
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Comfortable Head and Neck Postures in Reclined Seating for Use in Automobile Head Rest Design

University of Michigan-Matthew Reed, Sheila Ebert, Monica Jones
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Little information is available on passenger preferences for posture and support in highly reclined seat configurations. To address this gap, a laboratory study was conducted with 24 adult passengers at seat back angles from 23 to 53 degrees. Passenger preferences for head and neck posture with and without head support were recorded. This paper presents the characteristics of the passengers’ preferred head support with respect to thorax, head, and neck posture.
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Sensations Associated with Motion Sickness Response during Passenger Vehicle Operations on a Test Track

University of Michigan-Monica Lynn Haumann Jones, Sheila Ebert, Matthew Reed
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Motion sickness in road vehicles may become an increasingly important problem as automation transforms drivers into passengers. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute has developed a vehicle-based platform to study motion sickness in passenger vehicles. A test-track study was conducted with 52 participants who reported susceptibility to motion sickness. The participants completed in-vehicle testing on a 20-minute scripted, continuous drive that consisted of a series of frequent 90-degree turns, braking, and lane changes at the U-M Mcity facility. In addition to quantifying their level of motion sickness on a numerical scale, participants were asked to describe in words any motion-sickness-related sensations they experienced. Prior to in-vehicle testing, participants were shown a list of sensations that are commonly experienced during motion sickness: head sensations, body temperature change, drowsiness, dizziness, mouth sensations, nausea, or other sensations, which refer to difficulty focusing, irritability, eyestrain, or difficulty concentrating. Participants were instructed not to limit themselves to the list, but rather to report in their own words how they felt throughout the drive. For each sensation, they were also…
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