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Diesel Vehicle with Ultra-Low NOx Emissions on the Road

AECC-Joachim Demuynck, Cecile Favre, Dirk Bosteels
IAV-Frank Bunar, Joachim Spitta, Andreas Kuhrt
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The gap between diesel vehicle emissions in laboratory tests compared to those in use has been addressed by the introduction of the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) requirements. Modern diesel technology now demonstrates low emissions on the road over a wide range of driving conditions. This paper further demonstrates that consistent low nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particle number (PN) emissions can be achieved over a wide range of driving conditions beyond Euro 6d RDE requirements, with emission control technologies combined in an integrated approach.An LNT (Lean NOx Trap) is combined with a dual-dosing SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system. Low-load NOx control is achieved by the LNT in combination with a close-coupled SCR coated on the Diesel Particulate Filter (SDPF). High load conditions, on the other hand, are covered by the underfloor SCR system with a second AdBlue® injector. A P0 48V mild-hybrid system is also available to support the NOx control and to ensure good driving performance and fuel efficiency. An advanced control strategy is implemented to ensure optimal interaction between all emission control functionalities. The…
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Real-World Emissions Measurements of a Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle without and with a Gasoline Particulate Filter

AECC-Joachim Demuynck, Cecile Favre, Dirk Bosteels
Concawe-Heather Hamje
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The market share of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) vehicles has been increasing, promoted by its positive contribution to the overall fleet fuel economy improvement. It has however been reported that this type of engine is emitting more ultrafine particles than the Euro 6c Particle Number (PN) limit of 6·1011 particles/km that will be introduced in Europe as of September 2017 in parallel with the Real Driving Emission (RDE) procedure.The emissions performance of a Euro 6b GDI passenger car was measured, first in the OEM build without a Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) and then as a demonstrator with a coated GPF in the underfloor position. Regulated emissions were measured on the European regulatory test cycles NEDC and WLTC and in real-world conditions with Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) according to the published European RDE procedure (Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/427 and 2016/646). Finally, tests were conducted on the chassis dyno to explore the impact of going towards the RDE boundary conditions (driving dynamics and ambient temperature as defined in the RDE legislation).PN results showed that the vehicle…
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Evaluation of a Flow-Field-Based Heat Transfer Model for Premixed Spark-Ignition Engines on Hydrogen

Ghent University-Joachim Demuynck, Michel De Paepe, Sebastian Verhelst
Oxford University-Kam Chana
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogen-fuelled internal combustion engines are an attractive alternative to current drive trains, because a high efficiency is possible throughout the load range and only emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) can be emitted. The latter is an important constraint for power and efficiency optimization. Optimizing the engine with experiments is time consuming, so thermodynamic models of the engine cycle are being developed to speed up this process. Such a model has to accurately predict the heat transfer in the engine, because it affects all optimization targets. The standard heat transfer models (Annand and Woschni) have already been cited to be inaccurate for hydrogen engines. However, little work has been devoted to the evaluation of the flow-field based heat transfer model, which is the topic of this paper. The model is evaluated with measurements that focus on the effect of the fuel, under motored and fired operation. The experiments were designed with DoE techniques to systematically investigate the effects over the entire parameter space. The results demonstrate that the flow-field based heat transfer model is better…
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Experimental Evaluation of Lean-burn and EGR as Load Control Strategies for Methanol Engines

Ghent University-Jeroen Vancoillie, Louis Sileghem, Maarten Van de Ginste, Joachim Demuynck, Jonas Galle, Sebastian Verhelst
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The use of light alcohols as SI engine fuels can help to increase energy security and offer the prospect of carbon neutral transport. These fuels enable improvements in engine performance and efficiency as several investigations have demonstrated. Further improvements in efficiency can be expected when switching from throttled stoichiometric operation to strategies using mixture richness or exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to control load while maintaining wide open throttle (WOT).In this work the viability of throttleless load control using EGR (WOT EGR) or mixture richness (WOT lean burn) as operating strategies for methanol engines was experimentally verified. Experiments performed on a single-cylinder engine confirmed that the EGR dilution and lean burn limit of methanol are significantly higher than for gasoline. On methanol, both alternative load control strategies enable relative indicated efficiency improvements of about 5% compared to throttled stoichiometric operation. This is mainly due to the absence of throttling losses, reduced cooling and dissociation losses caused by the lower in-cylinder temperatures obtained through dilution. On gasoline, the efficiency benefits are limited because of the slow burn…
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Applying Design of Experiments to Determine the Effect of Gas Properties on In-Cylinder Heat Flux in a Motored SI Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ghent University-Joachim Demuynck, Michel De Paepe, Louis Sileghem, Jeroen Vancoillie, Sebastian Verhelst
University of Oxford-Kam Chana
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1209
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Models for the convective heat transfer from the combustion gases to the walls inside a spark ignition engine are an important keystone in the simulation tools which are being developed to aid engine optimization. The existing models have, however, been cited to be inaccurate for hydrogen, one of the alternative fuels currently investigated. One possible explanation for this inaccuracy is that the models do not adequately capture the effect of the gas properties. These have never been varied in a wide range because air and ‘classical’ fossil fuels have similar values, but they are significantly different in the case of hydrogen. As a first step towards a fuel independent heat transfer model, we have investigated the effect of the gas properties on the heat flux in a spark ignition engine. The effect of the gas properties was decoupled from that of combustion, by injecting different inert gases (helium, argon, carbon dioxide) into the intake air flow of the engine under motored operation. This paper presents the results of the experiment, which was designed with DoE…
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Spray Parameter Comparison between Diesel and Vegetable Oils for Non-Evaporating Conditions

Ghent University-Jonas Galle, Joachim Demuynck, Jeroen Vancoillie, Sebastian Verhelst
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The internal combustion engine with compression ignition is still the most important power plant for heavy duty transport, railway transport, marine applications and generator sets. Fuel cost and emission regulations drive manufacturers to switch to alternative fuels. The understanding and prediction of these fuels in the spray and combustion process will be very important for these issues. In the past, lot of research was done for conventional diesel fuel by optically analyzing both spray and combustion. However comparison between different groups is difficult since qualitative results and accuracies are depending in the used definitions and methods. The goal of present research is to verify the behavior pure oils compared to more standard fuels while paying lot of attention to the interpretation of the measurement results.Spray formation from a pump-line-nozzle diesel fuel injection system through a multi-hole injector, used for medium speed applications, is studied in an optically accessible constant volume combustion chamber using digital high speed shadowgraphy. A nitrogen atmosphere up to 80bar and 150°C was used for the non-reacting injection environment. This work compares…
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Laminar Burning Velocity Correlations for Methanol-Air and Ethanol-Air Mixtures Valid at SI Engine Conditions

Ghent Univ.-Jeroen Vancoillie, Sebastian Verhelst, Joachim Demuynck
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The use of methanol and ethanol in spark-ignition (SI) engines forms a promising approach to decarbonizing transport and securing domestic energy supply. The physico-chemical properties of these fuels enable engines with increased performance and efficiency compared to their fossil fuel counterparts. An engine cycle code valid for alcohol-fuelled engines could help to unlock their full potential. However, the development of such a code is currently hampered by the lack of a suitable correlation for the laminar flame speed of alcohol-air-diluent mixtures. A literature survey showed that none of the existing correlations covers the entire temperature, pressure and mixture composition range as encountered in spark-ignition engines. For this reason, we started working on new correlations based on simulations with a one-dimensional chemical kinetics code.In this paper the properties of methanol and ethanol are first presented, together with their application in modern SI engines. Then, the published experimental data for the laminar burning velocity are reviewed. Next, the performance of several reaction mechanisms for the oxidation kinetics of methanol- and ethanol-air mixtures is compared. The best performing…
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Investigation of Supercharging Strategies for PFI Hydrogen Engines

Ghent Univ.-Sebastian Verhelst, Joachim Demuynck, Steven Martin, Michael Vermeir, Roger Sierens
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (H₂ICEs) are an affordable, practical and efficient technology to introduce the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. They are practical as they offer fuel flexibility, furthermore the specific properties of hydrogen (wide flammability limits, high flame speeds) enable a dedicated H₂ICE to reach high efficiencies, bettering hydrocarbon-fueled ICEs and approaching fuel cell efficiencies.The easiest way to introduce H₂ICE vehicles is through converting engines to bi-fuel operation by mounting a port fuel injection (PFI) system for hydrogen. However, for naturally aspirated engines this implies a large power penalty due to loss in volumetric efficiency and occurrence of abnormal combustion.The present paper reports measurements on a single-cylinder hydrogen PFI engine equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and a supercharging set-up. The measurements were aimed at increasing the power output to gasoline engine levels or higher, while maximizing efficiency and minimizing emissions. Two strategies were tested: one using stoichiometric mixtures, with or without EGR, where a three-way catalyst (TWC) was relied upon for aftertreatment of oxides of nitrogen (NOX); and a…
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