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Brelin-Fornari, Janet
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Effects of Pretensioners and Load Limiters on 50th Male and 5th Female Seated in Rear Seat during a Frontal Collision

Kettering University Crash Safety Center-Massoud Tavakoli, Janet Brelin-Fornari
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study was conducted to explore the effect of various combinations of seatbelt-related safety components (namely, retractor pretensioners and load limiting retractors) on the adult rear passenger involved in a frontal collision. The study was conducted on a 50th Male and a 5th Female Hybrid III ATD in the rear seat of a mid-sized sedan. Each ATD was seated in an outboard position with 3-point continuous lap-shoulder belts. On these belts were combinations of pretensioners and load limiters. Since the main objective of this test series was to cross-compare the seatbelt configurations, front seats were not included in the buck in order to avoid uncontrollable variables that would have affected the comparison study if the possibility of contact with the front seat were allowed. Nevertheless, there was a short barrier devised to act as a foot-stop for both ATDs.A design of experiment (DOE) was constructed as a full factorial with and without a pretensioner and three types of load limiters. Each ATD was tested with a progressive load limiter (PLL1). Additionally, the 50th Male was…
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Side Impact Testing of the Near-Side, Rear Seat Occupant Using a Deceleration Sled

Hyundai America Technical Center-Kurt Shanks, Ravi Tangirala
Kettering Univ.-Sheryl Janca, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Massoud Tavakoli
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
A near-side, rear seat side impact component test, was conducted and validated utilizing a SIDIIs anthropomorphic test device (ATD). The test fixture consisted of the rear seat structure, side door, interior trim, and side airbag curtain module. Test parameters were determined from full scale tests including impact speed, angle of impact, and depth of door intrusion. A comparative assessment was conducted between the full scale test and the deceleration sled test including ATD contact with the vehicle interior, contact duration, sequential timing of ATD contact, and dummy injury measures. Validation was achieved so that the deceleration sled test procedure could be utilized for further evaluations.
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Pulse Sensitivity of a Child Restraint System, Near-Side Impact Fixture

Kettering Univ.-Janet Brelin-Fornari, Sheryl Janca
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has utilized a two part sled fixture to evaluate a near side test protocol for child restraint systems (CRS). The test was designed to impact the CRS with a fixed door at nearly 20 mph. This paper examines the affects of various fixture parameters on the acceleration and velocity profiles of the two part system during the impact event. It was determined that the kinematic time histories are sensitive to crush energy dissipation (as evaluated with variance in aluminum honeycomb volume) and fixture weight. It was also determined that payload weight, impact speed, and impact plane alignment have a small effect on the acceleration and velocity profiles. Even though the kinematics of the secondary carriage was small with the change in the impact plane alignment, it was determined that the CRS utilized in the standard test would have a 23% reduction in impact energy when compared to the CRS with the impact planes aligned.
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Child Restraint Systems: Top Tether Effectiveness in Side Impact Collisions

Kettering University-Joseph Neal, Janet Brelin-Fornari
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Use of the top tether attachment in three commonly available anchor points provides added restraint of child restraint systems (CRS). Three tether attachment positions were used; floor, behind the head rest (parcel deck) and at the ceiling. The three anchor points are comparable in efficacy while no tether allows increased travel of the anthropomorphic test device (ATD) head. Two series of six tests were conducted at a max speed of 20 mph and peak deceleration of 16 G's using a deceleration sled test apparatus. The first series of tests was conducted at a 90 degree impact angle. On average there is 9% less head travel when using the tether attachment compared to not using the tether attachment, all other conditions begin equal. The second series of tests was conducted at a 73 degree impact angle, there is 15% less head travel when using the tether attachment compared to not using the tether attachment, all other conditions begin equal. Using a top tether in side impacts is more effective at restraining a child seat than not…
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Evaluating Impact Attenuator Performance for a Formula SAE Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Kettering Univ-Jason Fahland, Craig Hoff, Janet Brelin-Fornari
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1106
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Formula SAE® is one of several student design competitions organized by SAE International. In the Formula SAE events undergraduate and graduate students are required to conceive, design, fabricate and compete with a small, formula-style, race car. Formula SAE safety rules dictate a 7 m/s (or approximately 15.65 mph) frontal crash test for nose-mounted impact attenuators. These rules are outlined in section B3.21 of the Formula SAE rule book. Development and testing methods of these energy-absorbing devices have varied widely among teams. This paper uses real-world crash sled results to research methods for predicting the performance of aluminum honeycomb impact attenuators that will comply with the Formula SAE standards. However, the resulting models used to predict attenuator performance may also have a variety of useful applications outside of Formula SAE. In this paper, various energy absorbers were mounted to a free rolling trolley sitting on top of a crash sled. The sled was launched so that the trolley with the attached attenuator was allowed to strike a rigid barrier. This resulted in a sudden deceleration measured…
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Investigation of Rear Occupant Head Restraint Interaction in High-Severity Rear Impact using BioRID and HIII

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Kettering University Crash Safety Center-Jeffrey Braganza , Massoud S. Tavakoli, Janet Brelin-Fornari
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0273
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The rear seat occupant has been the subject of an increasing number of research efforts in recent years. However, the majority of the research has focused on frontal impact, while there are also a number of studies concerned with low to moderate delta-V rear impact. Very limited work exists regarding the fate of the rear seat occupant involved in high-severity rear impact, especially when utilizing the BioRID anthropomorphic test device (ATD). Furthermore, it is evident that the out of position rear occupant, as defined by leaning forward prior to rear impact, is also of relevance to this line of research. The objective of this study is to explore and compare the response of BioRID and 50 th percentile Hybrid III in conjunction with the effects of head restraint geometry and the occupant seating configuration (normal seating versus forward leaning) in high-severity rear impact tests. Using a deceleration sled, BioRID and 50 th percentile Hybrid III were placed in the rear seat and subjected to a series of 22-mph delta-V rear impact tests. The pulse shape…
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Effect of Head and Neck Anthropometry on the Normal Range of Motion of the Cervical Spine of Prepubescent Children

Kettering University-Janet Brelin-Fornari, Terri Lynch-Caris
Oakland University-Karl Majeske
Published 2009-06-09 by SAE International in United States
Application of cervical spine range of motion data and related anthropometric measures of the head and neck include physical therapy, product design, and computational modeling. This study utilized the Cervical Range of Motion device (CROM) to define the normal range of motion of the cervical spine for subjects five (5) through ten (10) years of age. And, the data was collected and analyzed with respect to anatomical measures such as head circumference, face height, neck length, and neck circumference. This study correlates these static anthropometric measures to the kinematic measurement of head flexion, extension, lateral extension, and rotation. An analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient and a hypothesis test to evaluate the significance of the correlation indicated a statistically significant linear relationship between neck length and flexion r(156) = +0.16, p<0.042, neck length and lateral extension r(156) = +0.21, p<0.009, neck length and rotation r(156) = +0.17, p<0.035, neck circumference and lateral extension r(156) = −0.23, p<0.004, and head circumference and rotation r(156) = +0.21, p<0.009.
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Effect of Seat Belts Equipped with Pretensioners on Rear Seat Adult Occupants in High-Severity Rear Impact

Kettering University Crash Safety Center-Massoud S. Tavakoli, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Varun Shetty
Published 2008-01-14 by SAE International in United States
This study provides a preliminary investigation of occupant kinematics for rear seat occupants involved in high-severity rear impacts. The effect of a seatbelts equipped with or without a pyrotechnic pretensioner on restraining the rear seat adult occupant was evaluated. Further, the study examined the result of the occupant's seating alignment by comparing a Nominal Seating Position (NSP) to an occupant whose torso would be rotated forward to be placed in a Moderately Displaced Position (MDP) prior to impact. A series of eight sled tests were performed using a deceleration sled subjected to a delta-V of 30 mph. Instrumented HIII 50th and 5th ATDs were positioned in the outboard, rear seating positions. The study found that pretensioners had little effect on the occupant kinematics of rear seat occupants in either the NSP or the MDP. But, there were marked differences in kinematic evaluations between the occupant seating alignment configurations. HIC 15, HIC 36, Ncf, Nte, Ntf, peak chest acceleration, and peak, resultant pelvis acceleration all increased when the occupant's torso was displaced forward prior to the…
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Analysis of a Frontal Impact of a Formula SAE Vehicle

Kettering University-David Rising, Jason Kane, Nick Vernon, Joseph Adkins, Craig Hoff, Janet Brelin-Fornari
Published 2006-12-05 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study was to determine risk of injury to the driver during a frontal impact in a Formula SAE vehicle. Formula SAE is a collegiate student design competition where every year universities worldwide build and compete with open-wheel formula-style race cars. Formula SAE 2006 rules stipulate the use of an impact attenuator to absorb energy in the event of a frontal impact. These rules mandated an average deceleration not to exceed 20-g from a speed of 7.0 m/s (23 ft/s), but do not specify a specific time or pulse shape of the deceleration. The pulse shapes tested in this study included an early high-g, constant-g, and late high-g pulse. The tests were performed using the deceleration sled at the Kettering University Crash Safety Center.Using industry standard practices, this study examined the driver's risk of injury with regard to neck and femur loads, head and chest accelerations, as well as kinematic analysis using high speed video. The tests were repeated with and without the use of a HANS device. HIC and Nij criteria…
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Cervical Range of Motion Data in Children

Kettering University-Terri Lynch-Caris, Janet Brelin-Fornari
McLaren Regional Medical Center-Christopher Van Pelt
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The “Range-of Motion of the Cervical Spine of Children” study is a collaboration between Kettering University and McLaren Regional Medical Center in Flint, Michigan to quantify and establish benchmarks of “normal” range of motion (ROM) in children. The results will be analyzed to determine mean and standard deviation of degrees of rotation and used to improve the occupant protection in motor vehicles, sports equipment and benefits of physical therapy. The data will be invaluable in the development of computational models to analyze processes involving children in motion.
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