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Beltzer, M.
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Light Duty Diesel Particulate Emissions -Fuel and Vehicle Effects

Exxon Research and Engineering Co-R. A. Bouffard, M. Beltzer
Published 1981-10-01 by SAE International in United States
The potential effect of fuel composition on total particulates and particulate character were measured on a variety of production vehicles, which are representative of different combustion system types, using commercial and laboratory fuel blends. Tests were made with a CVS dilution tunnel, primarily using the EPA CVS-CH test procedure. Particulate emissions were found to be a function of both fuel and vehicle parameters. Both the particle bound organic and the carbonaceous fractions of diesel particulates showed linear relationships with the fuel’s aromatic content and backend volatility (as measured by the fraction of the fuel boiling above 640°F). Emission rates were strongly affected by vehicle type. The regression models for each car indicated that the back-end volatility contributed primarily to the particle bound organic fraction, while the aromatic content of the fuel influenced the carbonaceous fraction. Very large differences were found in the intrinsic capability of different vehicles to limit the emissions of extractable or sooty fraction of particulates. One vehicle emitted very low levels of extractables but high levels of soot. Another emitted high levels…
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The Conversion of SO2 Over Automotive Oxidation Catalysts

Exxon R & D Co.-M. Beltzer, R. J. Campion, J. Harlan, A. M. Hochhauser
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Noble metal oxidation catalysts have been shown to convert gasoline sulfur to automotive particulate sulfate emissions. A study was carried out in a laboratory bench scale reactor to evaluate the effect of vehicle operating conditions and catalyst type on the conversion of SO2 to SO3. The factors studied included catalyst temperature, exhaust gas O2 content and space velocity. The results are compared with data from a vehicular study designed to assess total sulfur emissions from catalyst-equipped cars.This study indicates that control of exhaust sulfate emissions may be achieved through close control of the oxygen content of exhaust gas and that the choice of catalyst affects the degree of conversion of SO2 to SO3 and the amount of oxidized sulfur retained in the catalyst system.
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