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Power & Thermal Systems Integration Techniques for High Performance Jet Aircraft

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Northrop Grumman Corp.-Clarence Lui, Matthew Dooley, Jacquelyn Duchene
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2164
Published 2012-10-22 by SAE International in United States
The high electrical power demand and heat rejection characteristics of a high energy laser pose new challenges to airframe power and thermal system designers. Typically, the power demand requires additional power storage devices and electrical generator upsizing which will adversely impact the engine performance and installation envelope. The thermal system is complicated by an already limited onboard heat sink, resulting in a bulkier system. Utilizing conventional approaches, the aircraft will suffer from additional weight, less available installation volume, and lower overall performance. This paper presents a potential integrated power and thermal system with attributes to minimize aircraft penalty. The system is a collection of various integration techniques that will be discussed individually for potential standalone application.
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Meeting Challenges of Key Characteristics (KC) Measurements in Aerospace Manufacturing

Northrop Grumman Corp.-Kumun Vakil
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this paper is to discuss challenges involved in the measurement of key characteristics in an integrated aircraft assembly line environment. The measurement process is complicated by the fact that each workstation may have different fixture configurations that pose limitations on accessibility, optimum positioning of the measurement device, and accurate transfer of data into aircraft coordinates. The project objective is to develop and implement an optimum metrology system that meets program requirements to reduce both the cost of quality and product cycle time through increased measurement efficiency, “as-built” feature characterization, assembly guidance, “real-time” control, data analysis, and report generation. The key system requirements are: limited number of down-selected hardware solutions specifically tailored for different areas of aircraft production; a single data analysis and report generation software solution throughout the entire assembly process; electronic and seamless integration of quality and inspection data between partnering companies; common sharing of databases for streamlined data handling; and a single integrated system that is simple enough to be pervasively implemented across industry. There are plenty of metrology devices…
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Detecting Damage and Damage Location on Large Composite Parts using RFID Technology

Northrop Grumman Corp.-Tim Shinbara
Smart Blades, Inc.-George Nicholas Bullen
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
Probabilistic methods are used in calculating composite part design factors for, and are intended to conservatively compensate for worst case impact to composite parts used on space and aerospace vehicles. The current method to investigate impact damage of composite parts is visual based upon observation of an indentation. A more reliable and accurate determinant of impact damage is to measure impact energy. RF impact sensors can be used to gather data to establish an impact damage benchmark for deterministic design criteria that will reduce material applied to composite parts to compensate for uncertainties resulting from observed impact damage. Once the benchmark has been established, RF impact sensors will be applied to composite parts throughout their lifecycle to alert and identify the location of impact damage that exceeds the maximum established benchmark for impact. This paper will describe and illustrate how weight and manufacturing costs can be reduced by eliminating uncertainties associated with impact damage to composite parts for aerospace vehicles. Therefore, composite design structures can perform their intended function with the desired confidence at lower…
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An Overview of Electrically Powered Control Actuation Health Management

Northrop Grumman Corp.-Robert Chen
US Air Force-John B. Schroeder
Published 2010-11-02 by SAE International in United States
As More Electric Aircraft design becomes the preferred system concept for several aerospace platforms, the electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) is emerging as a solution of choice for the primary flight control actuation system. This paper will give a brief history of electric actuation for flight systems, diagnosis and prognosis demonstrations and current state of health management research. AFRL and NASA working with industry and academic partners have been developing health management technologies that will help prevent the occurrence of some inherent EMA failure modes. Advanced fault diagnostics and failure prognostics were applied to the critical failure modes identified in the Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA). Modeling and simulation of EMA with degraded components were developed to support the design and evaluation of physics-based algorithms. Test data were generated using EMA hardware to validate high-fidelity EMA and physics-of-failure models. The potential benefits and feasibility of advanced health management technologies were demonstrated in detecting the faults in early stages, providing an accurate health state and predicting the time-to-failures with high confidence.
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A Method of Shared Regenerative Power Management

Northrop Grumman Corp.-Edmond Tajirian, Paramjit (Pete) Walia, Clarence Lui, Ivan Wong, Chris Lee
Published 2010-11-02 by SAE International in United States
The characteristics of large electrical loads encountered in the modern More Electric Aircraft (MEA) require regenerative power processing in order to preserve the power quality within acceptable transient and steady state limits. In an MEA with large active loads and pulsed power demands, it is necessary to employ an architecture that safely and effectively processes regenerative energy resulting from the dynamic loads.For instance, the electrical flight control actuation presents one of the largest regenerative power sources encountered by the generation system. Typical approach is to dissipate this energy through resistors of the power electronics which increases the size and penalizes the aircraft.This paper covers certain regenerative load properties, their electrical characteristics, the common approaches for mitigating regenerative power challenges, and an innovative approach for processing regenerative power by effectively utilizing on-board equipment to minimize the burden of the primary power generation and distribution system.
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A Hybrid Economy Bleed, Electric Drive Adaptive Power and Thermal Management System for More Electric Aircraft

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Northrop Grumman Corp.-Clarence Lui, Paramjit Walia
PC Krause & Associates-Tim C. O'Connell
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1786
Published 2010-11-02 by SAE International in United States
Minimizing energy use on more electric aircraft (MEA) requires examining in detail the important decision of whether and when to use engine bleed air, ram air, electric, hydraulic, or other sources of power. Further, due to the large variance in mission segments, it is unlikely that a single energy source is the most efficient over an entire mission. Thus, hybrid combinations of sources must be considered.An important system in an advanced MEA is the adaptive power and thermal management system (APTMS), which is designed to provide main engine start, auxiliary and emergency power, and vehicle thermal management including environmental cooling. Additionally, peak and regenerative power management capabilities can be achieved with appropriate control. The APTMS is intended to be adaptive, adjusting its operation in order to serve its function in the most efficient and least costly way to the aircraft as a whole.This paper presents a hybrid APTMS, which balances the use of economy bleed air and electric drive in a single architecture that automatically adapts to changing aircraft conditions to optimally regulate its function.…
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Potential Technology to Unclog Hot Day Operational Limit

Northrop Grumman Corp.-Clarence Lui, Eustaquio Carrillo Arce, Carl Banks, Bill Ho, Paramjit Walia, Chris Lee, Gabriel Canto
US Air Force-Steven Iden, Miguel Maldonado
Published 2010-11-02 by SAE International in United States
Fuel has been a popular choice for thermal system designers to use for absorbing aircraft accessory heat load due to its consumable nature. However, the shortcoming of using fuel as a heat sink is the dependency of environmental conditions. This deficiency has plagued the current United States Air Force fleet operation especially performing ground hold and low altitude attack mission during hot days. A Northrop Grumman led industrial team, commissioned by AFRL Power directorate through the INVENT program, has vigorously explored potential technologies to assist air force to enhance the mission capability. The results show various promising technologies not only can extend the hot day operational limit but also can potentially have an unrestricted capability. This paper describes the results from the study performed by Northrop Grumman for an advanced unmanned air vehicle (AUAV) for potential technologies and discusses the modeling approach in support of the analytical process.
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Applied Accurate Robotic Drilling for Aircraft Fuselage

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Northrop Grumman Corp.-Todd Szallay
Electroimpact Inc.-Russell Devlieg
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1836
Published 2010-09-28 by SAE International in United States
Once limited by insufficient accuracy, the off-the-shelf industrial robot has been enhanced via the integration of secondary encoders at the output of each of its axes. This in turn with a solid mechanical platform and enhanced kinematic model enable on-part accuracies of less than +/−0.25mm. Continued development of this enabling technology has been demonstrated on representative surfaces of an aircraft fuselage. Positional accuracy and process capability was validated in multiple orientations both in upper surface (spindle down) and lower surface (spindle up) configurations. A second opposing accurate robotic drilling system and full-scale fuselage mockup were integrated to simulate doubled throughput and to demonstrate the feasibility of maintaining high on-part accuracy with a dual spindle cell.
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Automated Cold Working Using Split Mandrel Technology

Northrop Grumman Corp.-George Bullen
Published 2001-09-10 by SAE International in United States
In order to support the T-38 Wing Life Improvement program, the Materials and Process Product Support group was requested to perform a metallurgical examination of a test article containing several cold expanded holes drilled in an aluminum/aluminum and an aluminum/steel assembly. The assembly, complete with a wing skin which were composed of a trunnion or landing ear rib, and a tip rib, was designed to represent a miniature T-38 wing and was used to determine the feasibility of cold expanding or cold working of holes drilled in T-38 wings using automated machinery incorporating a split mandrel process per Process Specification FH-114.
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Static Discharge in Composite Leading Edges

Northrop Grumman Corp.-Fred G. Williams
Published 1999-10-19 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an analysis approach to investigate wing leading edge static charge dissipation caused by frictional electrification. The static charge is normally dissipated through the anti-static coating layer beneath the topcoat to the aircraft structure, and subsequently is dissipated into the air via the static discharge system on the trailing edge.Composite leading edges that have non-conductive coating materials pose a unique static charge dissipation design problem. When the induced static charge exceeds the dielectric strength of the nonconductive coating, discharge to the structure can damage the coatings.This paper describes the anti-static system design analysis performed to develop a system design solution.
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