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Lane Line detection by Lidar intensity value interpolation

Kettering University-Viktor Ciroski, Jungme Park
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2607
To be published on 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
We present an approach to estimate a single lane line using a LiDAR unit for autonomous vehicles. By comparing the difference in elevation of LiDAR channels, a drivable region is defined. Further, by filtering and sorting intensity values, we are able to distinguish potential lane markings. By calculating the standard deviation of the lane markings in the y-axis the data can be further refined to specific points of interest. By applying a statistical approximation, to these points of interest, we can interpolate a linear approximation of the lane line.
 

Structural Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of a 3-Phase AC Induction Motor

Peyman Poozesh
Kettering University-Anand Krishnasarma, Allan Taylor, Javad Baqersad
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper aims to study the NVH and acoustic performance of a 3-phase AC induction motor in order to develop an approach to reduce the magnetic component of noise from an electric motor in an electric vehicle (EV). The final goal of this project is to reduce the magnetic component of sound from the motor by making modifications to the end bracket of the motor housing.EVs are being considered the future of mobility mainly due to the fact that they are environment-friendly. As many companies are already investing in this technology, electric drives are set to become extremely popular in the years to come. The heart of an EV is its motor. Modern electric vehicles are quiet, furthermore with the lack of an IC engine to mask most sounds from other components, the sound from the electric motor and other auxiliary parts become more prominent. The primary source of electromagnetic noise in a motor arises from magnetic flux variations in the air gap which interfere with the resonant frequencies of the stator core. These flux…
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A Non-Contact Technique for Vibration Measurement of Automotive Structures

Kettering University-Vanshaj Srivastava, Javad Baqersad
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The automotive and aerospace industries are increasingly using the light-weight material to improve the vehicle performance. However, using light-weight material can increase the airborne and structure-borne noise. A special attention needs to be paid in designing the structures and measuring their dynamics. Conventionally, the structure is excited using an impulse hammer or a mechanical shaker and the response is measured using uniaxial or multi-axial accelerometers to obtain the dynamics of the structure. However, using contact-based transducers can mass load the structure and provide data at a few discrete points. Hence, obtaining the true dynamics of the structure conventionally can be challenging. In the past few years, stereo-photogrammetry and three-dimensional digital image correlation have received special attention in collecting operating data for structural analysis. These non-contact optical techniques provide a wealth of distributed data over the entire structure. However, the stereo camera system is limited by its field of view of the cameras and can only measure the response on the parts of the structure that cameras have the line of sight. Therefore, a single pair…
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Preliminary Study of Perceived Vibration Quality for Human Hands

Kettering University-Jennifer M. Bastiaan
Bruel & Kjaer North America, Inc.-Edward Green, Sophie Kaye
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
A large body of knowledge exists regarding the effects of vibration on human beings; however, the emphasis is generally on the damaging effects of vibration. Very little information has been published regarding the effect of vibration on perceived consumer product quality. The perceived loudness of a product is quantified using the Fletcher-Munson equal loudness curves, but the equivalent curves for perceived vibration amplitude as a function of amplitude and frequency are not readily available. This “vibration quality” information would be valuable in the design and evaluation of many consumer products, including automobiles. Vibration information is used in the automobile design process where targets for steering wheel, seat track, and pedal vibration are common. For this purpose, the vibration information is considered proprietary and is generally applicable to a narrow frequency range. In this investigation, work paralleling the original Fletcher-Munson study is presented. “Equal comfort curves” for vibration were measured and developed for hands grasping a handlebar. A paired-comparison test methodology was used to establish an equivalency of perceived vibration comfort for vibration in a wide…
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On the Safety of Autonomous Driving: A Dynamic Deep Object Detection Approach

Kettering University-Mehrdad Zadeh
Concordia University Montreal-Javad Dargahi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To improve the safety of automated driving, the paramount target of this intelligent system is to detect and segment the obstacle such as car and pedestrian, precisely. Object detection in self-driving vehicle has chiefly accomplished by making decision and detecting objects through each frame of video. However, there are diverse group of methods in both machine learning and machine vision to improve the performance of system. It is significant to factor in the function of the time in the detection phase. In other word, considering the inputs of system, which have been emitted from eclectic type of sensors such as camera, radar, and LIDAR, as time-varying signals, can be helpful to engross ‘time’ as a fundamental feature in modeling for forecasting the object, while car is moving on the way. In this paper, we focus on eliciting a model through the time to increase the accuracy of object detection in self-driving vehicles. In fact, we designed a deep recurrent neural network, which is fed by the output of a deep convolutional neural network. Eventually, the…
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Feasibility Study Using FE Model for Tire Load Estimation

Kettering University-Abhishek Sameer Chawan, Vikas Birajdar, Javad Baqersad
General Motors LLC-Mohammad Behroozi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
For virtual simulation of the vehicle attributes such as handling, durability, and ride, an accurate representation of pneumatic tire behavior is very crucial. With the advancement in autonomous vehicles as well as the development of Driver Assisted Systems (DAS), the need for an Intelligent Tire Model is even more on the increase. Integrating sensors into the inner liner of a tire has proved to be the most promising way in extracting the real-time tire patch-road interface data which serves as a crucial zone in developing control algorithms for an automobile. The model under development in Kettering University (KU-iTire), can predict the subsequent braking-traction requirement to avoid slip condition at the interface by implementing new algorithms to process the acceleration signals perceived from an accelerometer installed in the inner liner on the tire. Abaqus® FEA has been used to develop the tire model and subjected to Abaqus/Explicit® analysis to study the non-linear behavior executed by a rolling tire. The strain variation at the contact under the three major situations of acceleration, braking and free rolling have…
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Using Digital Image Correlation to Measure Dynamics of Rolling Tires

Kettering University-Aakash Mange, Javad baqersad, Vanshaj Srivastava, Jess More
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Vehicles are in contact with the road surface through tires, and the interaction at the tire-road interface is usually the major source of vibrations that is experienced by the passengers in the vehicle. Thus, it is critical to measure the vibrational characteristics of the tires in order to improve the safety and comfort of the passengers and also to make the vehicle quieter. The measurement results can also be used to validate numerical models. In this paper, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) as a non-contact technique is used to measure the dynamics of a racing tire in static and rolling conditions. The Kettering University FSAE car is placed on the dynamometer machine for this experiment. A pair of high-speed cameras is used to capture high-resolution images of the tire in a close-up view. The images are processed using DIC to obtain strain and displacement of the sidewall of the tire during rolling. The experiment is performed for various testing speeds. The results show the variation of displacement and strain during the rolling condition. The results also…
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Physical Validation Testing of a Smart Tire Prototype for Estimation of Tire Forces

Kettering University-Jennifer M. Bastiaan
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The safety of ground vehicles is a matter of critical importance. Vehicle safety is enhanced with the use of control systems that mitigate the effect of unachievable demands from the driver, especially demands for tire forces that cannot be developed. This paper presents the results of a smart tire prototyping and validation study, which is an investigation of a smart tire system that can be used as part of these mitigation efforts. The smart tire can monitor itself using in-tire sensors and provide information regarding its own tire forces and moments, which can be transmitted to a vehicle control system for improved safety. The smart tire is designed to estimate the three orthogonal tire forces and the tire aligning moment at least once per wheel revolution during all modes of vehicle operation, with high accuracy. The prototype includes two in-tire piezoelectric deformation sensors and a rotary encoder. Data from the sensor measurements are processed using a radial basis function neural network. The network is employed to estimate the tire forces and moment as developed at…
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Investigation and Development of a Slip Model for a Basic Rigid Ring Ride Model

Kettering University-Vikas Birajdar, Javad Baqersad, Jennifer Bastiaan
General Motors LLC-Mohammad Behroozi
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
With the recent advances in rapid modeling and rapid prototyping, accurate simulation models for tires are very desirable. Selection of a tire slip model depends on the required frequency range and nonlinearity associated with the dynamics of the vehicle. This paper presents a brief overview of three major slip concepts including “Stationary slip”, “Physical transient slip”, and “Pragmatic transient slip”; tire models use these slip concepts to incorporate tire slip behavior. The review illustrates that there can be no single accurate slip model which could be ideally used for all modes of vehicle dynamics simulations. For this study, a rigid ring based semi-analytical tire model for intermediate frequency (up to 100 Hz) is used. The scope of this project is to investigate different steady state and transient slip models developed and used in industry and academia to find the most appropriate model, which could be added to this basic rigid ring tire model for capturing the tire behavior on uneven roads with relatively short and sharp unevenness. After a comprehensive investigation of all these existing tire…
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Power Systems Infrastructure of Hybrid Electric Fuel Cell Competition Go Kart

Kettering University-Kingsley Joel Berry, Abdrahamane Traore, Aravind Krishna, Pavankumar Gangadhar, Allan Taylor
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper documents the electrical infrastructure design of a Hybrid Go Kart competition vehicle which includes a dual Fuel Cell power system, Ultra Capacitors for energy storage, and a dual AC induction motor capable of independent drive. The Kart was built primarily to compete in the 2009 Formula Zero international event. This paper emphasized the vehicle model and control strategy as a result of three (3) graduate student research projects. The vehicle was fabricated and tested but did not participate in the race competition since the race organization folded. The vehicle model was developed in Simulink to determine whether the fuel cell and ultra-capacitor combination will be sufficient for peak transient power requirement of 14 kW. The vehicle’s functional description and performance specifications are documented including the integration of the fuel cell power modules, energy storage system, power converters, and AC motor and motor controllers.
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