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SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics Stability and NVH
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ERRATUM: Design of Adjustable Road Feeling Performance for Steering-by-Wire System

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Concordia University-Bin Li
Jilin University-Hongyu Zheng, Jian Zhou
  • Journal Article
  • 10-02-02-0008.1
Published 2018-09-21 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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ERRATA: Bifurcation Analysis of a Car Model Running on an Even Surface - A Fundamental Study for Addressing Automomous Vehicle Dynamics

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Politecnico di Milano-Giampiero Mastinu, Fabio Della Rossa, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giorgio Previati
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1589.01
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Integrated Driving and Braking Control Unit for Electric Bikes

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan-Chun-Liang Lin, Min-Chi Hsieh, Tao-Hung Chen
  • Journal Article
  • 10-02-03-0015
Published 2018-10-04 by SAE International in United States
In this research, an integrated driving and braking control unit was developed for electric bikes. The unit integrates the driving and braking circuits in a module. Alternate commutation was used to design the driving and braking unit of a customized brushless direct-current hub motor (BLDCHM). The braking torque for the braking section is generated through alternating the duty cycle of the pulse-width-modulated (PWM) commands of the switching elements and phase sequence arrangement of the current conduction loops. The current conduction loops in the motor and switching elements is arranged to adjust the braking torque in a sophisticated way. The integrated design has been successfully tested in a commercialized electric bike with a BLDCHM.
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Open Access

Study of the Sliding Door Shaking Problem and Optimization Based on the Application of Euler’s Spiral

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Hunan University, China-Ziming Chen, Luoxing Li, Yunlong Wu
Oushang R&D Center of Changan Automobile Company, China-Wufeng Zhou
  • Journal Article
  • 10-02-03-0014
Published 2018-10-03 by SAE International in United States
This study focuses on the sudden shaking phenomenon of a sliding door passing through a corner. This phenomenon requires attention because shaking during movement can lead to a harsh operation feeling and a short service life. An experiment based on a test setup was conducted, and the sudden change in the acceleration of a sliding door panel was measured. Based on multi-body dynamics (MBD) analysis and a rigid-flexible coupled model of the sliding door system, the cause of the sudden shaking was determined to be the discontinuous curvature of the middle rail trajectory. A transition curve was proposed as the solution for the discontinuous curvature, and Euler’s spiral was applied in the redesign of the middle rail trajectory. Verified by simulations, the results exhibit considerable improvement in sliding door movement stability, with large reductions in the maximum center of mass (CM) acceleration and guide roller impact force.
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Structural Optimization Techniques to Design Light Weight and Low Radiated Noise Components

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Eaton Technology Pvt Ltd-A.S. Bhuwal, Siddesh Kapdi, M.D. Jinto
  • Journal Article
  • 10-02-03-0013
Published 2018-07-24 by SAE International in United States
Structural optimization evolved as a preferred technique across industries to develop lightweight products. One of the widely studied topics in structural optimization is to develop methods that reduce the radiated noise from a structure, where responses like Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP) and natural frequencies used to indirectly address the noise levels. This article compares freeform optimization with topology optimization technique and investigates their effectiveness for reducing radiated noise and weight. To illustrate the same, Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) analyses are performed on a sheet metal flat plate (panel) as an example and correlated the same with experimental data. Further, different optimization problem formulations have been explored on those examples and results have been compared. The aim of this study is to identify an effective optimization technique and problem formulation, which can be deployed on complex engineering products to reduce the radiated noise with a minimum weight penalty.
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Friction Model for Real-Time Simulation of Powertrain Dynamics

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

China Automotive Technology & Research Center-Liang Xu
Jilin University-Hsin Guan, Haiyan Song, Pingping Lu
  • Journal Article
  • 10-02-01-0003
Published 2018-05-22 by SAE International in United States
Clutch friction modeling in powertrain system is the key to realize the real-time and accurate simulation of the powertrain system, and it will have a significant effect on the accurate simulation of the nonlinear characteristics of the powertrain system. Friction models can be divided into two categories: discontinuous friction models and continuous friction models. The approach of dealing with zero velocity discontinuity will affect the numerical stability of the real-time simulation in the discontinuous friction models. The smaller simulation step usually required by continuous friction models will reduce the efficiency of the simulation. Therefore, how to establish and select the friction model is one of the difficulties in the powertrain system modeling. In this article, with the standard of high computational efficiency and numerical stability, simulation research on typical friction model used in real time simulation has been done. At the same time, some friction models of them are improved. A real-time simulation model of the powertrain system is established and the selected friction models are applied to the clutch modeling. The simulation results show…
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Development of an Empirical Spring Aid Model for Automotive Applications

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Kongsberg Automotive-Domingo Beltran
  • Journal Article
  • 10-02-02-0006
Published 2018-05-10 by SAE International in United States
Spring aids are used to provide additional stiffness at the end of bump travel, preventing metal to metal contact. Commonly they are represented by nonlinear stiffness depending on displacement; however the main drawback of this approach is that it does not show any hysteretic behavior, hence they do not produce realistic force predictions differentiating between loading and unloading and energy absorbed is not calculated. Although introducing damping as a function of velocity generates some hysteresis, it does not generate realistic results for quasi-static and dynamic events; and measured data proves that velocity does not have a significant influence in the width of the loop. An empiric model can be build combining nonlinear stiffness and viscous damping, as a function of velocity, and also adding an additional term accounting for structural damping. This structural damping, implemented similar to a friction element, is nonlinear depending on displacement and velocity; and it is capable of representing realistically the hysteresis present in the component behavior. The three terms work in parallel, stiffness and structural damping capture the amplitude dependency…
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Rubber Suspension Bushing Model Identified by General Design Parameters for Initial Design Phase

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Toyota Motor Corporation-Kentaro Horiuchi, Shinichi Sakaguchi
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0693
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
This article proposes a rubber suspension bushing model considering amplitude dependence as a useful tool at the initial design phase. The purpose of this study is not to express physical phenomena accurately and in detail and to explore the truth academically, but to provide a useful design method for initial design phase.Experiments were carried out to verify several dynamic characteristics of rubber bushings under vibration up to a frequency of 100 Hz, which is an important frequency range when designing ride comfort performance. When dynamic characteristic theory and the geometrical properties of the force-displacement characteristic curve were considered using these dynamic characteristics as assumptions, an equation was derived that is capable of calculating the dynamic stiffness under an arbitrary amplitude by identifying only two general design parameters (dynamic stiffness and loss factor) under a reference amplitude. The rubber suspension bushing model was then constructed by transforming this equation. Two verifications were carried out to confirm that the model is capable of reproducing measured bushing characteristics. Previous models consist of a large amplitude stiffness component and…
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The Effect of Fixture on the Testing Accuracy in the Spindle-Coupled Road Simulation Test

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Tongji University-Gang Xu, Doudou Yan, Rui Zhang
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0130
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The action of load on the component is crucial to evaluate the performance of durability. Another factor that affects fatigue life is the boundary conditions of the test specimen being tested by introducing unrealistic loads on the component of interest. The physical test is widely conducted in the laboratory. The fixture provides additional constraints on the test specimen as well as reaction forces to balance the test system [1]. The characteristics of the fixture involved in the test is important to analyze and assess the test results [2]. The impact of the reaction force of the fixture on the spindle-coupled axle road simulation test is presented in this article. A simplified 7-DoF (degrees of freedom) model is introduced to demonstrate the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The influence on the internal load by the fixture has been analyzed. Followed by a more detailed MBS (multibodysystem) model to give a thorough understanding of the phenomenon. A pseudo damage analysis was conducted to show the impact of the fixture on the durability of the axle test.
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Optimization Control for 4WIS Electric Vehicle Based on the Coincidence Degree of Wheel Steering Centers

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Concordia University-Bin Li
Jilin University-Hongyu Zheng, Shuo Yang
  • Journal Article
  • 10-02-03-0011
Published 2018-07-24 by SAE International in United States
The steering centers of four wheels for passenger car do not coincide, which may result in tire wear and the unharmoniously movement of the vehicle. In this article, an optimization control method for Four Wheel Independent Steering (4WIS) electric vehicle based on the coincidence degree of steering centers is proposed, to improve the driving performance. The nonlinear vehicle model of the four-wheel independent steering vehicle is established, and the formula of the wheel steering center is derived. The coincidence degree of wheel steering centers is defined as the evaluation index, to describe and evaluate the performance of the coordination for wheels’ movement. Meanwhile, the structure design of 4WIS system and the establishment of Direct-Current (DC) steering motor model are carried out, and the Model Predictive Control (MPC) controller for steering actuator is designed. The coincidence degree and related performance index for 4WIS vehicle steering system are performed as the optimization target for vehicles to achieve the optimal control by neural network predictive control algorithm. Simulations based on high-fidelity CarSim model show the effectiveness of the…
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