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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Electronic and Electrical Systems
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Virtual Dominant Sensor for Observability Improvement in Rotating Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

SDRL, University of Cincinnati-Shrirang Deshpande, Randall Allemang
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2281
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Spectral maps and order tracks are tools which are susceptible to improper sensor location on rotating machinery and to measurement noise. On a complex/large rotating system, the major behavior in a particular direction cannot be observed by using standard digital signal processing averaging techniques on different sensor outputs. Also, measurement noise cannot be reduced by applying averaging - due to the slew rate of the system.A newly developed technique tested on experimental data, is presented which uses singular value decomposition (SVD) as its basis to improve the observability of rotating systems. By using data acquired from multiple accelerometers on a machine, singular values - obtained from a SVD of the cross-power matrix at each 2-D point in the frequency-RPM domain - can be plotted in a color-map format similar to a RPM spectral map. These “Singular value maps” can be used to find the best possible sensor combination on a complex rotating system like a powertrain and to observe the system as one unit in a particular direction retaining major and inherent dynamic activity and…
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Application of a New Perceptually-Accurate Tonality Assessment Method

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

HEAD acoustics GmbH-Roland Sottek
HEAD acoustics Inc-Wade Bray
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2282
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
For many years in vehicle and other product noise assessments, tonality measurement procedures such as the Tone-to-Noise Ratio, Prominence Ratio and DIN 45681 Tonality have been available to quantify the audibility of prominent tones. Especially through the recent past as product sound pressure levels have become lower, disagreements between perceptions and measurements have increased across a wide range of product categories including automotive, Information Technology and residential products. One factor is that tonality perceptions are caused by spectrally-elevated noise bands of various widths and slopes as well as by pure tones, and usually escape measure in extant tools. Near-superpositions of discrete tones and elevated narrow noise bands are increasingly found in low-level technical sounds. Existing pure-tone methodologies tend to misrecognize an elevated noise band as general masking lowering the audibility of a tone in the measured vicinity, whereas perceptually they add. To address such issues a new psychoacoustically-based tonality model is presented which evaluates the nonlinear and time-dependent loudness of both tonal and broadband components, separating them via the autocorrelation function (ACF) and giving their…
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Instrumentation, Acquisition and Data Processing Requirements for Accurate Combustion Noise Measurements

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ford Motor Co.-Chris Hocking, Simon Antonov
University of Wisconsin-Arsham Shahlari
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2284
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
The higher cylinder peak pressure and pressure rise rate of modern diesel and gasoline fueled engines tend to increase combustion noise while customers demand lower noise. The multiple degrees of freedom in engine control and calibration mean there is more scope to influence combustion noise but this must first be measured before it can be balanced with other attributes. An efficient means to realize this is to calculate combustion noise from the in-cylinder pressure measurements that are routinely acquired as part of the engine development process. This publication reviews the techniques required to ensure accurate and precise combustion noise measurements. First, the dynamic range must be maximized by using an analogue to digital converter with sufficient number of bits and selecting an appropriate range in the test equipment. Second, the encoder resolution (sampling rate) must be chosen in order to achieve the required frequency range and to avoid aliasing that is typical in event-based acquisition systems. Third, to calculate combustion noise the resulting cylinder pressure must be suitably chosen or windowed before applying an FFT…
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Differential Drive Assisted Steering Control for an In-wheel Motor Electric Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Tongji University-Bo Leng, Lu Xiong, Chi Jin, Jun Liu, Zhuoping Yu
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1599
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
For an electric vehicle driven by four in-wheel motors, the torque of each wheel can be controlled precisely and independently. A closed-loop control method of differential drive assisted steering (DDAS) has been proposed to improve vehicle steering properties based on those advantages. With consideration of acceleration requirement, a three dimensional characteristic curve that indicates the relation between torque and angle of the steering wheel at different vehicle speeds was designed as a basis of the control system. In order to deal with the saturation of motor's output torque under certain conditions, an anti-windup PI control algorithm was designed. Simulations and vehicle tests, including pivot steering test, lemniscate test and central steering test were carried out to verify the performance of the DDAS in steering portability and road feeling. Results showed that with the proposed DDAS, the reference steering wheel torque can be tracked satisfactorily, drivers' handling burdens were reduced efficiently and the vehicle steering performance was improved.
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Short Term Prediction of a Vehicle's Velocity Trajectory Using ITS

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Johannes Kepler University Linz-Dominik Moser, Harald Waschl, Roman Schmied, Hajrudin Efendic, Luigi del Re
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0295
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Modern cars feature a variety of different driving assistance systems, which aim to improve driving comfort and safety as well as fuel consumption. Due to the technical advances and the possibility to consider vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) strategies have received significant attention from both research and industrial communities.The performance of such systems can be enhanced if the future velocity of the surrounding traffic can be predicted. Generally, human driving behavior is a complex process and influenced by several environmental impacts. In this work a stochastic model of the velocity of a preceding vehicle based on the incorporation of available information sources such as V2I, V2V and radar information is presented. The main influences on the velocity prediction considered in this approach are current and previous velocity measurements and traffic light signals. For practical applications a model must capture the driver's reaction on the traffic situation as well as the vehicle dynamics. Here a Bayesian network approach is followed which provides a compact representation of the variable dependencies and…
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Real-time Determination of Driver's Driving Behavior during Car Following

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ford Motor Co.-Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Finn Tseng
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0297
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes an approach that characterizes a driver's driving behavior and style in real-time during car-following drives. It uses an online learning of the evolving Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model combined with the Markov model. The inputs fed into the proposed algorithm are from the measured signals of on-board sensors equipped with current vehicles, including the relative distance sensors for Adaptive Cruise Control feature and the accelerometer for Electronic Stability Control feature. The approach is verified using data collected using a test vehicle from several car-following test trips. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been shown in the paper.
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System Design and Verification for a Safety Related Integrated Sensor

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Melexis Technologies SA-Vincenzo Sacco, Mathieu Poezart, Gael F. Close
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0234
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the engineering aspects of an integrated, monolithic, angular position sensor to be developed as Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) in accordance with ISO-26262[1]. The sensor is a Hall-effect-based angular sensor, used in a wide range of automotive, safety-critical applications such as accelerator pedal position, throttle-valve position, or any other application requiring the accurate measurement of the angular position of a mechanical part. The assumed safety requirements allocated to this sensor have to be developed according to ASIL-C.The mapping between technical safety requirements and architecture elements, as conveyed by the technical safety concept, will be first presented. Failure mode effect and Diagnostic Analysis (FMEDA)[2], supporting the safety mechanism specification will be discussed next; here a safety mechanism selection guide is also proposed. The paper will finally show how this safety-centric analysis is integrated into a classic mixed-signal integrated Circuit verification methodology.
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MC-based Risk Analysis on the Capacity of Distribution Grids to Charge PEVs on 3-ph 0.4-kV Distribution Grids Considering Time and Location Uncertainties

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Fraunhofer IOSB-AST-Sven Bohn, Robert Feustel, Michael Agsten
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0305
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The increasing number of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) impacts the power grid due to their high demand in power and energy, and uncertainties in the charging behavior. Typical PEVs are charged single-phase up to 32 A (7.2-kVA) or tri-phase up to 32 A (22.0- kVA). Both charging technologies have to be discussed in order to determine their impact on planning and operating of low-voltage distribution grids to assure a reliable and stable PEV charging.Traditional grid planning and analysis methods, which average and evenly distribute PEV loads on the distribution grid, fail in providing a realistic answer about the grid capacity to charge PEVs. The question; How many PEVs can be charged simultaneously on a distribution grid remains unanswered.Therefore, this paper describes a novel methodology to realistically evaluate the grid capacity for PEV charging on 3-phase 0.4-kV distribution grids. The proposed methodology is a modified Monte Carlo (MC) simulation technique, which analyzes grid capacity with respect to charging location, technical distribution grid limitations, and PEV charging techniques. The MC technique is numerically optimized to analyze large…
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NLMPC for Real Time Path Following and Collision Avoidance

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Politecnico di Milano-Ugo Rosolia, Francesco Braghin, Edoardo Sabbioni
Univ of Illinois-Andrew Alleyne
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0313
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a nonlinear control approach to achieve good performances in vehicle path following and collision avoidance when the vehicle is driving under cruise highway conditions. Nonlinear model predictive control (NLMPC) is adopted to achieve online trajectory control based on a simplified vehicle model. GMRES/Continuation algorithm is used to solve the online optimization problem. Simulations show that the proposed controller is capable of tracking the desired path as well as avoiding the obstacles.
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A Novel Method for Day Time Pedestrian Detection

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

KPIT Technologies Ltd.-Reena Kumari Behera, Jiji Gangadharan, Krishnan Kutty, Smita Nair, Vinay Vaidya
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0319
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a vision based pedestrian detection system. The presented algorithm is a novel method that accurately segments the pedestrian regions in real time. The fact that the pedestrians are always vertically aligned is taken into consideration. As a result, the edge image is scanned from bottom to top and left to right. Both the color and edge data is combined in order to form the segments. The segmentation is highly dependent on the edge map. Even a single pixel dis-connectivity would lead to incorrect segments. To improve this, a novel edge linking method is performed prior to segmentation. The segmentation would consist of foreground and background segments as well. The background clutter is removed based on certain predefined conditions governed by the camera features. A novel edge based head detection method is proposed for increasing the probability of pedestrian detection. The combination of head and leg pattern will determine the presence of pedestrians. The extracted segments are merged to form the complete pedestrian based on the evident leg and head pattern. The algorithm…
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