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Experimental Study on Enhanced FXLMS Algorithm for Active Impulsive Noise Control

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ford Motor Co.-Ming-Ran Lee, Ming Cheng, Wayne Vanhaaften, Takeshi Abe
University of Cincinnati-Guohua Sun, Mingfeng Li, Teik C. Lim
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1951
Published 2013-05-13 by SAE International in United States
Active noise control (ANC) technique with the filtered-x least mean square (FXLMS) algorithm has proven its efficiency and drawn increasingly interests in vehicle noise control applications. However, many vehicle interior and/or exterior noises are exhibiting non-Gaussian type with impulsive characteristic, such as diesel knocking noise, injector ticking, impulsive crank-train noise, gear rattle, and road bumps, etc. Therefore, the conventional FXLMS algorithm that is based on the assumption of deterministic and/or Gaussian signal may not be appropriate for tackling this type of impulsive noise. In this paper, an ANC system configured with modified FXLMS (MFXLMS) algorithm by adding thresholds on reference and error signal paths is proposed for impulsive noise control. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, an experimental study is conducted in the laboratory. Various impulses with different durations are added in the Gaussian noise to simulate the typical impulsive noise. A series of low pass filters (LPFs) are used to model the various transmission paths, where the multiple reference signals are generated and used for the MFXLMS algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that…
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Development and Implementation of Hardware in the Loop Simulation for Dual Clutch Transmission Control Units

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ferrari Auto SpA-Luca Poggio, Francesco Marcigliano
University of Bologna-Nicolo Cavina, Davide Olivi, Enrico Corti, Giorgio Mancini
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0816
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A control oriented model of a Dual Clutch Transmission was developed for real time Hardware In the Loop (HIL) applications. The model is an innovative attempt to reproduce the fast dynamics of the actuation system maintaining a step size large enough for real time applications. The model comprehends a detailed physical description of hydraulic circuit, clutches, synchronizers and gears, and simplified vehicle and internal combustion engine sub-models; a stable real time simulation is achieved with a simplification of the model without losing physical validity. After an offline validation, the model was implemented in a HIL system and connected to the TCU (Transmission Control Unit) via two input-output boards, and to a load plate which comprehends all the actuators. The paper presents a selection of the several tests that have been performed for the development of the DCT controller: electrical failure tests on sensors and actuators, mechanical failure tests on hydraulic valves, clutches and synchronizers, and application tests comprehending all the main features of the control performed by the TCU, i.e. drive away and gear shift…
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An Empirically Based Suggestion for Reformulating the Glance Duration Criteria in NHTSA's Visual-Manual Interaction Guidelines

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Volvo Cars-Mikael Ljung Aust, Sergejs Dombrovskis, Jordanka Kovaceva, Bo Svanberg, Jan ivarsson
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0444
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
NHTSA recently proposed performance guidelines for visual-manual interaction with non-driving related in-vehicle systems. While a commendable effort to reduce distraction related crashes, in part they seem overly strict. In particular, NHTSA proposes that for each driver performing a secondary task, no more than15 % of the off-road eye glances can be longer than 2.0 s, and 21 in 24 drivers must meet this criterion.The applicability of this criterion was assessed in a study using data from two eye-tracker based studies, involving 35 subjects performing a range of secondary tasks on normal roads.Results showed that over tasks, the average off-road glance duration lengths were quite robust within drivers but varied widely between drivers. Off-road glance duration length thus seems more to reflect individual driver attention allocation strategy than in-vehicle task complexity.Also, several drivers failed to meet the suggested criterion. Assuming that their relative prevalence can be generalized to the general driver population, then as many as one in six drivers may display the type of naturally long off-road glances that will make them fail to meet…
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A Coupled System Simulator for Electric Power Steering System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hitachi Automotive Systems Steering, Ltd-Yoshitaka Sugiyama
Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd-Junnosuke Nakatsugawa
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0423
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Electric power steering system has been widely used in passenger cars to replace hydraulic power steering system. In this paper, a coupled system simulator for dual-pinion electric power steering system is developed and its dynamics is verified using experimental data. The mechanical subsystem model is developed using mass, spring-damper and experimental data with hysteresis characteristic. For the control subsystem, the controller model is developed by transplanting control program from the controller in real vehicle to the simulator. For the electric subsystem, the motor model is developed using the map of current to torque which is created by magnetic field analysis in advance. The three subsystems are combined to form the complete system simulator and numerical simulation is performed. The simulation results are compared to the experimental data and the error is less than 10%. The coupled EPS system simulator produces accurate predictions of system dynamics and can support engineers in the analysis and design of real system effectively.
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Lean Model-Based Development: Practical Approach

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Delphi Electronics & Safety-Lev Vitkin
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0437
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Development pace of new embedded projects often requires usage of model-based design process (MBD). More individuals start using MBD without previous experience with tools and new processes. Matlab/Simulink/Stateflow is a common tool that is used in control applications in automotive and airspace industries. Because of its complexity, the tool has a steep learning curve. Therefore, it is vitally important to set the MBD environment that allows persons to develop real-life projects even without a deep knowledge of the tool. The quality of the product should not be compromised and the development time should not be extended due to the initial lack of knowledge of the tool by the developers.The shifting to MBD leads to changes of roles and responsibilities of algorithm designers and software implementers. This shift is due to ability of creating of efficient production code by code generators. Code generators empower algorithm developers to produce production code of almost the same quality as the software engineers used to create by hand. However, the generation of that software is possible in only a well-defined…
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How to Make LED Concepts More Affordable for Automotive Signal Lighting

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Varroc Lighting Systems-Miroslav Kropac
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0754
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Similarly as in other branches of lighting, LEDs caused a revolution in the automotive lighting industry. LEDs have been established as a standard light source for exterior signal lighting in last the decade and the current development shows that a similar trend might continue for the main functions of head lamps. Roadmaps of all the LED producers show us more promising light output for a lower price every year.However, the LED price itself is just a part of the final price of the additional subassembly which provides proper conditions for the right functionality of the LED. Driving electronics (covering nominal state as well as a wide range of critical states), PCBs, connectors and wiring significantly bump up the price of the whole subassembly. What is more, as TIER2 suppliers are responsible for the LED subassembly, there is just a limited space for the TIER1 price impact and margins. These aspects make LEDs inapplicable for lower car segments or even for certain world regions by implication.Simplicity in principle, using clever optical systems and the conception of…
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Model Based System Design of Conceptual Drive-by-Wire ECU Functions for Electric Vehicle Conversion

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

DRIVE Center, Naresuan University-Ananchai Ukaew
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0426
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Development of conceptual drive-by-wire ECU for electric vehicle conversion (EVC) can be designed by means of a low cost and time saving model based process. This is done by employing MATLAB scripted programs to systematically compute the power flow regime of the electric vehicle propulsion and response to dynamic loads. In this particular design, vehicle data and modification of simplified federal urban driving cycle (SFUD) were the two main inputs for driving simulation. As a result, the simulation was capable to predict various EVC characteristics and design parameters, such as driving range, torque-speed characteristics, and motor power usage. Output obtained from simulation were employed as design criteria to set up drive-by-wire software and ECU hardware functions, which are driving modes, torque set point for EVC electric propulsion in all four quadrants. EVC functions also have potential benefits in the improvement of vehicle drivability to suit a driver's individual preference.
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A Virtual Driving Education Simulation System - Hardware and Software with Pilot Study

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Clemson University-Qimin (Jimmy) Yao, John R. Wagner, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1407
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Novice drivers are often ill-equipped to safely operate a motor vehicle due to their limited repertoire of skills and experiences. However, automotive simulation tools can be applied to better educate young drivers for a number of common driving scenarios. In this paper, the Clemson Automotive Training System (CATS) will be presented to educate and train novice drivers to safely operate four wheel passenger vehicles on paved roadways. A portable automotive simulator can be programmed to emulate a variety of high-crash rate scenarios and roadway geometries. Drivers receive instructions regarding proper driving techniques and behaviors with an opportunity to practice the given vehicle maneuver. An on-line evaluation methodology has been designed to analyze the drivers' capabilities at handling these roadway events. First, a pre-simulation questionnaire evaluates their basic understanding of everyday driving situations. Second, when driving, individuals are assessed on multiple factors including vehicle speed, yaw angle, lateral acceleration, steering angle, and proper lane adherence while navigating the implemented track. Third, individuals complete a post-simulation questionnaire. Finally, a driving score is displayed on the computer screen…
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Design Verification of Automotive Controller Models

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

General Motors Company-S. Ramesh
Intel Technology India Pvt. Ltd.-Swarup Mohalik
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0428
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Model-Based Development processes in the automotive industry typically use high-level modeling languages to build the reference models of embedded controllers. One can use formal verification tools to exhaustively verify these design models against their requirements, ensuring high quality models and a reduction in the cost and effort of functional testing. However, there is a gap, in terms of processes and tools, between the informal requirements and the formal specifications required by the verification tools. In this paper, we propose an approach that tries to bridge this gap by (i) identifying the verifiable requirements through a categorization process, (ii) providing a set of templates to easily express the verifiable requirements, and (iii) generating monitors that can be used as specifications in design verification tools. We demonstrate our approach using the Simulink Design Verifier tool for design verification of Simulink/Stateflow models.
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Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment in Automotive Cyber Security

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

MIRA Ltd-David Ward, Ireri Ibarra, Alastair Ruddle
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1415
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The process of hazard analysis and risk assessment (H&R or HARA) is well-established in standards and methods for functional safety, such as the automotive functional safety standard ISO 26262. Considering the parallel discipline of cyber security, it is necessary to establish an analogous process of threat analysis and risk assessment (T&R) in order to identify potential security attacks and the risk associated with these attacks if they were successful.While functional safety H&R processes could be used for threat analysis, these methods need extension and adaptation to the cyber security domain. This paper describes how such a method has been developed based on the approach described in ISO 26262 and the related MISRA Safety Analysis Guidelines. In particular key differences are described in the understanding of the severity of a security attack, and the factors that contribute to the probability of a successful attack. However it also acknowledges that some threats may contribute to a safety-relevant hazard.The paper will also explore some potential future directions, such as how the T&R can be used to support an…
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