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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Electronic and Electrical Systems
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Model-Based Design Case Study: Low Cost Audio Head Unit

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ford Motor Company-Jason Marx, Weiqian Sun
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0052
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The use of model-based software development in automotive applications has increased in recent years. Current vehicles contain millions of lines of code, and millions of dollars are spent each year fixing software issues. Most new features are software controlled and many times include distributed functionality, resulting in increased vehicle software content and accelerated complexity. To handle rapid change, OEMs and suppliers must work together to accelerate software development and testing. As development processes adapt to meet this challenge, model-based design can provide a solution.Model-based design is a broad development approach that is applied to a variety of applications in various industries. This paper reviews a project using the MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow environment to complete a functional model of a low cost radio. We approached the project independent of any specific software architecture, using only written specifications and current working units as a guide to functionality. The final result is a model that captures the functional behavior of the radio. While the model could be used for auto code-generation, this project focused on utilizing the radio model to…
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Intelligent CAD Tool to Solve Challenges in the Design of Orbiting EDM Electrode

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Keio Univ.-Tutik Sriani, Hideki Aoyama
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1073
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Orbiting EDM introduces additional electrode motion to enhance debris removal mechanism during machining process. This method offers superior machining quality towards static EDM due to advancement of debris removal and subsequently becomes a common process to produce precise and complex parts. However, designers often encounter difficulties to design electrode used for orbiting purposes. Aside from adjusting the electrode for machining overcut, the electrode also has to consider for the chosen orbit motion into geometry design, otherwise the final product will not meet design requirements due to deviated product dimension. These two factors have to be adjusted concurrently, following the characteristic of spark machining influenced by orbital motion. There is no CAD package that currently supports geometry adjustment for orbiting motion of EDM process in the market. Therefore, designers always perform manual electrode compensation for both orbit motion as well machining overcut. Manual compensation for both factors is considered as a big challenge for parts possesses intricate geometry, prone to human-error and consumes huge amount of design time. This research aims to facilitate those difficulties encountered…
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Structural Optimization for Vehicle Dynamics Loadcases

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

General Motors Company-Giles Bryer, Christopher Eccles
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0058
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
As mass reduction becomes an increasingly important enabler for fuel economy improvement, having a robust structural development process that can comprehend Vehicle Dynamics-specific requirements is correspondingly important. There is a correlation between the stiffness of the body structure and the performance of the vehicle when evaluated for ride and handling. However, an unconstrained approach to body stiffening will result in an overly-massive body structure. In this paper, the authors employ loads generated from simulation of quasi-static and dynamic vehicle events in ADAMS, and exercise structural finite element models to recover displacements and deflected shapes. In doing so, a quantitative basis for considering structural vehicle dynamics requirements can be established early in the design/development process. The objective of the authors was to develop more comprehensive structural optimization loadcases by utilizing analysis of the suspension and the loads it imparts on the chassis structure during a handling maneuver. This paper illustrates two new methods of developing vehicle structure for vehicle dynamics: inertia relief step steer and statically constrained roll.
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Free-Form Optimization Method for Designing Automotive Shell Structures

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Toyota Technological Institute-Masatoshi Shimoda
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0064
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, we present a parameter-free, or a node-based optimization method for finding the smooth optimal free-form of automotive shell structures, including global and local curvature distributions such as beads or embossed ribs. The design problems dealt with in this paper involve a stiffness problem. Stiffness is maximized using the compliance as an objective functional. The optimum design problem is formulated as a distributed-parameter, or non-parametric, shape optimization problem under the assumptions that the shell is varied in the normal direction to the surface and the thickness is constant. The shape gradient function and the optimality conditions are then theoretically derived. The optimum free-form, or optimal curvature distribution, is determined by applying the derived shape gradient function in the normal direction to the shell surface as pseudo external forces to vary the surface and to minimize the objective functional. With this method, the smooth optimal global free-form or the smooth optimal local beads of shell structures in automotive body and chassis parts is created without any shape design parameterization. The validity and practical utility…
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Using Model Transformation/Code Generation Technology to Migrate Legacy Software Assets to AUTOSAR

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

General Motors Company-Rick Flores, David Rosa, Mohan Murugesan
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1264
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Maximizing reuse of existing software assets is a common goal for companies as they move to new projects and products. Typically, reuse is complicated by changes to the context in which the software executes; the software architecture. As in all development areas, software architects are seeking continuous improvement to their designs either through internal innovation or established external standards. However, changes to the software architecture (e.g. interfaces, services, scheduling etc.) can prove to be a driver of fundamental, large-scale change to software if reuse strategies are not planned into the product line. This paper describes a reuse strategy that maximizes the preservation of existing assets while focusing effort on the development of transformation rules that generate software targeting a new architectural context.
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Design Optimization of Front Bumper System for Low Speed Impact Insurance Industry Impact Test using DFSS and CAE Analysis

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

General Motors Company-Stuart J. Brown
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0070
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
In 2006, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) released a new Low Speed Bumper Test Protocol for passenger cars1. The new test protocol included the development of a deformable barrier that the vehicle would impact at low speeds. IIHS positioned the new barrier to improve correlation to low speed collisions in the field, and also to assess the ability of the bumper system to protect the vehicle from damage. The bumper system must stay engaged to the barrier to protect other vehicle components from damage. The challenge is to identify the bumper system design features that minimize additional cost and mass to keep engagement to the barrier. The results of the Design for Six Sigma analysis identified the design features that increase the stiffness of the bumper system enable it to stay engaged to the barrier and reduce the deflection.
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Development of Liftgate Hinge-to-Roof Sealing Gasket Material for Uncoated Steel Roof Panels

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

General Motors Company-Carl Corman, Mark Yergin, Andy Kussmaul, Lou Conrad, Gregory Martin
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0072
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The sealing of a lift gate hinge to the body structure is necessary to avoid both the onset of corrosion and to avoid water intrusion into the interior compartment. The hinge-to-body interface typically involves horizontal metal-to-metal surface contact, creating the perfect environment for moisture entrapment and corrosion initiation.The choice of body panel material (uncoated (bare) steel vs. coated (galvanized) steel) drives different sealing approaches especially when considering corrosion avoidance.
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VIRTUAL HILS : A Model-Based Control Software Validation Method

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hitachi-Yasuhiro Ito
Hitachi Advanced Digital, Inc-Masahiro Matsushita
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1018
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes Virtual-Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation (VHILS), a new validation method for real-time control systems.HILS integrates multiple-technology domain simulators and uses no actual hardware components. Target software in binary code formats are executed with CoMET™, a virtual processor platform and physical layer signals are emulated with MATLAB®/Simulink®. Thus, VHILS can replace HILS, which is widely used for control software validation today.The VHILS was applied to the development of adaptive cruise control system (ACCS), and driver maneuvering, vehicle dynamics, microcontroller operation and CAN communication were modeled. The data exchange between multi-domain simulation and communication modeling were identified to be the primary causes of longer computational time. By carefully designing the simulator interfaces and the CAN model, we built an entire ACCS simulation that showed accurate match with experimental results and yielded one-third of the real environment's turnaround time.The VHILS was also applied to real-time software code debugging as an alternative approach to hardware-based In-Circuit Emulators (ICEs). The virtual real-time debugger (VRD) helps software engineers to examine run-time behavior of control codes and investigate cause-and-effect relationships of software…
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Performance of Aftermarket (DSRC) Antennas Inside a Passenger Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Honda R&D Americas Inc.-Radovan Miucic, Sue Bai
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1031
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
A vehicle's safety system capability can be enhanced by a cooperative Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) system in which vehicles communicate their driving status data, such as location and speed, using a common Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) protocol. The effectiveness of the V2V applications will depend on the number of the vehicles equipped. Market penetration significantly influences the effectiveness of V2V safety applications. Previous research indicated that it could take decades to reach 95% DSRC safety device penetration in the market if only the new vehicles are equipped with the DSRC transponders during manufacturing. In order to raise the market penetration of such technology in the foreseeable future and provide a safety benefit to the early adopters, a scenario that involves retrofit and aftermarket DSRC devices is suggested by U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT). A typical retrofit for a passenger vehicle may mean that a DSRC antenna will be installed on the roof of the vehicle and the cable will be routed to the transponder somewhere inside the vehicle. An aftermarket device installation typically means that the…
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Wideband Multi-Service Automotive Antenna Conformed to a Curved Surface

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

RMIT University-Brendan D. Pell, Edin Sulic , Wayne S.T. Rowe , Kamran Ghorbani , Sabu John
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0047
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Vehicles produced in decades past were fitted with very few antennas. In most cases only an AM or FM antenna was required. In contrast to this, today's vehicles are fitted with a plethora of antennas to receive a wide variety of signals at a number of different frequencies. This work presents a wideband radiating structure capable of sending and receiving many of the signals required in a modern vehicle from a single device. The antenna is based on Planar Inverted Cone Antenna geometry. The effect of bending or curving the antenna substrate is investigated at values in the range that may be required for vehicular integration.
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