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ERRATA: Aerodynamic CFD Based Optimization of Police Car Using Bezier Curves

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Durham Univ.-Philip Gaskell PhD
Education & Technology Solutions Inc.-Ali Reza Taherkhani
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9450.01
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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ERRATUM: Life Cycle Analysis of 1995-2014 U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet: The Environmental Implications of Vehicle Material Composition Changes

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Argonne National Laboratory-Qiang Dai, Jarod C. Kelly, Amgad Elgowainy
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1273.01
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Influence of the Friction Coefficient in Self-Pierce Riveting Simulations: A Statistical Analysis

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-E.I. Ilieva
The University of Alabama-J.F.C. Moraes, J.B. Jordon
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-02-0013
Published 2018-05-08 by SAE International in United States
In this work, optimal modeling parameters for self-pierce riveting (SPR) were determined using a factorial design of experiments (DOE). In particular, we show statistically how each of the calibrating parameters used in modeling the SPR process through nonlinear finite element modeling can drastically change the geometry of the joint. The results of this study indicate that the degree of interlock, which is a key feature of a sound joint, is largely influenced by the friction between the die and bottom sheet as well as the friction between the rivet and top sheet. Furthermore, this numerical study also helped elucidate the role of friction in SPR and sheds light on how coatings with diverse friction coefficients can affect material deformation and ultimately structural integrity of the joint.
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Response of Austempering Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Property in Different Zones of As-Welded Ductile Iron (DI)

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Jadavpur University-Tapan Sarkar, Tapan Kumar Pal
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-02-0016
Published 2018-05-08 by SAE International in United States
Sound ductile iron (DI) welded joints were performed using developed coated electrode and optimized welding parameters including post weld heat treatment (PWHT). Weldments consisting of weld metal, partially melted zone (PMZ), heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal were austenitized at 900 °C for 2 hour and austempered at 300 °C and 350 °C for three different holding time (1.5 hour, 2 hour and 2.5 hour). In as-weld condition, microstructures of weld metal and PMZ show ledeburitic carbide and alloyed pearlite, but differ with their amount. Whereas microstructure of HAZ shows pearlite with some ledeburitic carbide and base metal shows only ferrite. However, in spite of the significant variation in microstructures at different zones of weldment in as-weld condition, all the zones show similar microstructure of base metal such as bainitic ferrite along with some retained austenite after austempering heat treatment, indicating the response of heat treatment from different zones like base metal. However, the microstructure of each zone of weldment varies in shape, size and amount with changing the austempering temperature and holding time.…
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Modeling the Effect of Foam Density and Strain Rate on the Compressive Response of Polyurethane Foams

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry-Mikelis Kirpluks, Ugis Cabulis
Riga Technical University-Guntis Japins, Kaspars Kalnins
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-02-0014
Published 2018-05-08 by SAE International in United States
Due to the high deformability and energy dissipation capacity of polymer foams in compression, they are used in automotive applications to mitigate mechanical impacts. The mechanical response of the foams is strongly affected by their density. Phenomenological relations have been proposed to describe the effect of foam density on their stress-strain response in compression at a fixed loading rate and the effect of loading rate at a fixed foam density. In the present work, these empirical approaches are combined allowing for the dependence of loading rate effect in compression on foam density. The minimum experimental data set for calibration of the proposed model consists of compression test results at two different loading rates of foams with two different densities. Rigid closed-cell polyurethane foams with apparent density in the range of ca. 100 to 300 kg/m3 have been produced and tested in compression up to a ca. 80% engineering strain at low (0.00167 to 0.5 s−1) and intermediate (~102 s−1) strain rates. The model parameters were evaluated from test results of the largest and smallest-density foams…
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Machining Quality Analysis of Powertrain Components Using Plane Strain Finite Element Cutting Models

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-Youssef Ziada, Juhchin Yang
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-02-0012
Published 2018-05-07 by SAE International in United States
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of metal cutting is largely the domain of research organizations. Despite significant advances towards accurately modelling metal machining processes, industrial adoption of these advances has been limited. Academic studies, which mainly focused on orthogonal cutting, fail to address this discrepancy. This article bridges the gap between simplistic orthogonal cutting models and the complex components typical in the manufacturing sector. This article outlines how to utilize results from orthogonal cutting simulations to predict industrially relevant performance measures efficiently. In this approach, using 2D FEA cutting models a range of feed, speed and rake angles are simulated. Cutting force coefficients are then fit to the predicted cutting forces. Using these coefficients, forces for 3D cutting geometries are calculated. In order to predict part behavior during cutting, these predicted forces are used as an input to 3D FEA models of the part and fixture. This approach allows 3D part deflections to be calculated, without the computational expense and uncertainty of a 3D cutting model. Since this approach does not require experiments to define the…
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Optimization of WEDM Cutting Parameters on Surface Roughness of 2379 Steel Using Taguchi Method

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Universiti Sains Malaysia-Ahmad Baharuddin Abdullah, Zahurin Samad
Universiti Sains Malaysia - Kampus Kejuruteraan Seri Ampangan-Noor Azam Jaafar
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-02-0010
Published 2018-04-07 by SAE International in United States
Surface roughness is one of the important aspects in producing quality die. Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (WEDM) is commonly used in tool and die fabrication, since the die material is usually difficult to cut using traditional metal removal processes. Selection of optimal WEDM cutting parameters is crucial to obtain quality die finish. In this study, 2379 steel which equivalent to SKD 11 is selected as the die material. Four main WEDM cutting parameters, namely, pulse duration (A), pulse interval (B), servo voltage (C), ignition pulse current (D), were experimentally evaluated for both main cut and multiple trim cuts using Taguchi Method. Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array is employed for experimental design and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used in recognizing levels of significance of WEDM cutting parameters. It was found that in the main cut experiments, the pulse duration gives a significant effect on surface roughness, while the remaining parameters has minimal influence. In contrast, for the multiple trim cuts, all four parameters were significant to the surface roughness. According to signal to noise (S/N) ratio…
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Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Mold with Embedded Carbon Fiber Resistor Heater - Case Study

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Delta Rafal Mikke Ltd.-Rafał Mikke
Warsaw University of Technology-Piotr Czarnocki, Anna Boczkowska, Wojciech Frączek, Paulina Chabera, Michał Kubis, Jędrzej Marjanowski
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-02-0011
Published 2018-04-07 by SAE International in United States
The article presents a complete description of the design and manufacturing of a Carbon Fiber/epoxy mold with an embedded Carbon Fiber resistor heater, and the mold performances in terms of its surface temperature distribution and thermal deformations resulting from the heating. The mold was designed for manufacturing aileron skins from Vacuum Bag Only prepreg cured at 135°C. The glass transition temperature of the used resin-hardener system was about 175°C. To ensure homogenous temperature of the mold working surface in the course of curing, the Carbon Fiber heater was embedded in a layer of a highly heat-conductive cristobalite/epoxy composite, forming the core of the mold shell. Because the cristobalite/epoxy composite displayed much higher thermal expansion than CF/epoxy did, thermal stresses could arise due to this discrepancy in the course of heating. Therefore, to lower these stresses, the Carbon Fiber/epoxy faces were separated from the cristobalite/epoxy core containing the heating element by the buffer layer of carbon nanotubes/epoxy displaying intermediate thermal expansion. The determined mold surface thermal deformation was in the range of 1 mm in 20°C-135°C temperature…
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Residual Stresses and Plastic Deformation in Self-Pierce Riveting of Dissimilar Aluminum-to-Magnesium Alloys

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-Xuming Su
Oak Ridge National Lab-J.R. Bunn, Lindsay Sochalski-Kolbus
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-02-0015
Published 2018-05-08 by SAE International in United States
In this work, the complex relationship between deformation history and residual stresses in a magnesium-to-aluminum self-pierce riveted (SPR) joint is elucidated using numerical and experimental approaches. Non-linear finite element (FE) simulations incorporating strain rate and temperature effects were performed to model the deformation in the SPR process. In order to accurately capture the deformation, a stress triaxiality-based damage material model was employed to capture the sheet piercing from the rivet. Strong visual comparison between the physical cross-section of the SPR joint and the simulation was achieved. To aid in understanding of the role of deformation in the riveting process and to validate the modeling approach, several experimental measurements were conducted. To quantify the plastic deformation from the piercing of the rivet, micro hardness mapping was performed on a cross-section of the SPR joint. The FE model showed very strong correlation to the experimental hardness mapping results suggesting the nonlinear model captured the plastic deformation with high accuracy. To measure the elastic residual stresses in the SPR joint, neutron and x-ray diffraction mapping techniques were conducted…
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