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Low Cost Wet Ethanol for Spark-Ignited Engines: Further Investigations

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Mario Martins, Thompson Lanzanova, Rafael Sari
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0954
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study evaluates the performance of an ethanol fueled spark ignited engine running with high levels of hydration. Ethanol is a renewable fuel and has been considered a promising alternative to counteract global warming and to reduce pollutant emissions. Its use is well established in ICE as the main fuel or blended with gasoline. However, due to its lower calorific value, it shows increased fuel consumption when compared to gasoline, rendering its use sometimes less attractive. The energy demand to produce ethanol, especially at the distillation phase, increases exponentially as the concentration of ethanol-in-water goes from 80% onwards. Thus, mixtures with less than 80% of ethanol-in-water would reduce the energy consumption during production, yielding a less expensive fuel. In previous studies, to evaluate the feasibility of wet ethanol as a fuel for spark-ignited engines, results have shown that it was possible to use mixtures of up to 40% of water-in-ethanol. This further experimental results aiming at optimizing combustion phasing for a fixed 50% mass fraction burnt point. The engine used in this research was a…
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Linking the Physical Manifestation and Performance Effects of Injector Nozzle Deposits in Modern Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell Global Solutions-Alastair Smith, Rod Williams
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0892
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The formation of deposits within injector nozzle holes of common-rail injection fuel systems fitted to modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the flow of fuel into the combustion chamber. This disruption in fuel flow results in reduced or less efficient combustion and lower power output. Hence there is sustained interest across the automotive industry in studying these deposits, with the ultimate aim of controlling them.In this study, we describe the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging to characterise fuel injector hole deposits at intervals throughout an adaptation of the CEC Direct Injection Common Rail Diesel Engine Nozzle Coking Test, CEC F-98-08 (DW10B test)[1].In addition, a similar adaptation of a previously published Shell vehicle test method [2] was employed to analyse fuel injector hole deposits from a fleet of Euro 5 vehicles. During both studies, deposits were compared after fouling and after subsequent cleaning using a novel fuel borne detergent.In all cases, the use of fuel borne detergents quickly recovered >75% of power lost during the fouling stage of the tests. SEM images showed…
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NOx Trap Three-Way Catalyst (N-TWC) Concept: TWC with NOx Adsorption Properties at Low Temperatures for Cold-Start Emission Control

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Yuichiro Murata, Tomoko Morita, Katsuji Wada, Hiroshi Ohno
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1002
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A new concept for trapping NOx and HC during cold start, the NOx Trap Three-Way Catalyst (N-TWC), is proposed. N-TWC adsorbs NOx at room temperature, and upon reaching activation temperature under suitable air-fuel ratio conditions, it reduces the adsorbed NOx. This allows a reduction in NOx emissions during cold start. N-TWC's reduction mechanism relies on NOx adsorption sites which are shown to be highly dispersed palladium on acid sites in the zeolite. Testing on an actual vehicle equipped with N-TWC confirmed that N-TWC is able to reduce emissions of NOx and HC during cold start, which is a challenge for conventional TWCs.
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Study of an On-board Fuel Reformer and Hydrogen-Added EGR Combustion in a Gasoline Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Koichi Ashida, Hirofumi Maeda, Takashi Araki, Maki Hoshino, Koji Hiraya, Takao Izumi, Masayuki Yasuoka
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0902
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To improve the fuel economy via high EGR, combustion stability is enhanced through the addition of hydrogen, with its high flame-speed in air-fuel mixture. So, in order to realize on-board hydrogen production we developed a fuel reformer which produces hydrogen rich gas. One of the main issues of the reformer engine is the effects of reformate gas components on combustion performance. To clarify the effect of reformate gas contents on combustion stability, chemical kinetic simulations and single-cylinder engine test, in which hydrogen, CO, methane and simulated gas were added to intake air, were executed. And it is confirmed that hydrogen additive rate is dominant on high EGR combustion. The other issue to realize the fuel reformer was the catalyst deterioration. Catalyst reforming and exposure test were carried out to understand the influence of actual exhaust gas on the catalyst performance. Fresh catalyst showed good performance in generating hydrogen, but an aged catalyst generated only half as compared to a fresh catalyst. So we considered measures to improve catalyst performance. According to EGR reforming performance test…
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Ash Accumulation and Impact on Sintered Metal Fiber Diesel Particulate Filters

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Carl Justin Kamp, Paul Folino, Alexander Sappok, Victor W. Wong
Rypos Inc-Yujun Wang, Jim Ernstmeyer, Amin Saeid, Rakesh Singh, Bachir Kharraja
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1012
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
While metal fiber filters have successfully shown a high degree of particle retention functionality for various sizes of diesel engines with a low pressure drop and a relatively high filtration efficiency, little is known about the effects of lubricant-derived ash on the fiber filter systems.Sintered metal fiber filters (SMF-DPF), when used downstream from a diesel engine, effectively trap and oxidize diesel particulate matter via an electrically heated regeneration process where a specific voltage and current are applied to the sintered alloy fibers. In this manner the filter media essentially acts as a resistive heater to generate temperatures high enough to oxidize the carbonaceous particulate matter, which is typically in excess of 600°C. The regeneration process does not require additional fuel, such as in the case of active regeneration in conventional/ceramic wall-flow diesel particulate filters (DPF), since the energy required for regeneration typically comes from another source like an auxiliary battery. In addition, the SMF-DPF is not sensitive to fuel quality (especially fuel sulfur levels), engine load and exhaust temperature.Just as in the case of the…
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Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers (PODE3-4)/ Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF) Blends in Premixed Low Temperature Combustion (LTC)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Tsinghua Univ-Hao-ye Liu, Zhi Wang, Jian-Xin Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0810
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF) refers to the fuels with a distillation range from Initial Boiling Point (IBP) of gasoline to Final Boiling Point (FBP) of diesel. Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers (PODEn) have high oxygen content and cetane number, are promising green additive to diesel fuel. In this paper, WDF was prepared by blending diesel and gasoline at ratio of 1:1, by volume; the mass distribution of oligomers in the PODE3-4 product was 88.9% of PODE3 and 8.46% of PODE4. Diesel fuel (Diesel), WDF (G50D50) and WDF (80%)-PODE3-4 (20%) (G40D40P20) were tested in a light-duty single-cylinder diesel engine, combustion characteristic, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were measured. The results showed that: at idling condition, G40D40P20 has better combustion stability, higher heat release rate, higher thermal efficiency compared with G50D50. At medium load, G40D40P20 can be run with higher EGR to get much lower NOx emissions compared with G50D50; both G40D40P20 and G50D50 maintain very low soot emissions, while diesel has a soot bump during the EGR sweep; G40D40P20 leads to highest thermal efficiency during the EGR sweep.
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Lignin Derivatives as Potential Octane Boosters

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Eindhoven University of Technology-Miao Tian, Robin Van Haaren, Jos Reijnders, Michael Boot
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0963
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Owing to environmental and health concerns, tetraethyl lead was gradually phased out from the early 1970's to mid-1990's in most developed countries. Advances in refining, leading to more aromatics (via reformate) and iso-paraffins such as iso-octane, along with the introduction of (bio) oxygenates such as MTBE, ETBE and ethanol, facilitated the removal of lead without sacrificing RON and MON. In recent years, however, legislation has been moving in the direction of curbing aromatic and olefin content in gasoline, owing to similar concerns as was the case for lead.Meanwhile, concerns over global warming and energy security have motivated research into renewable fuels. Amongst which are those derived from biomass. The feedstock of interest in this study is lignin, which, together with hemicellulose and cellulose, is amongst the most abundant organic compounds on the planet. Contrary to (hemi-) cellulose, however, which is an important constituent of feed for livestock, lignin falls completely outside of our food chain.This study was motivated by the need for renewable octane boosters of low toxicity, which improve both anti-knock quality and fuel…
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Development of New High Porosity Diesel Particulate Filter for Integrated SCR Technology/Catalyst

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

NGK Europe GmbH-Tasuku Matsumoto, Philipp Kattouah, Claus Dieter Vogt
NGK Insulators, Ltd.-Yuki Jin, Narimasa Shinoda, Yosuke Uesaka, Tatsuyuki Kuki, Masataka Yamashita, Hirofumi Sakamoto
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1017
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Since the implementation of Euro 6 in September 2014, diesel engines are facing another drastic reduction of NOx emission limits from 180 to only 80 mg/km during NEDC and real driving emissions (RDE) are going to be monitored until limit values are enforced from September 2017. Considering also long term CO2 targets of 95 g/km beyond 2020, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between NOx and CO2 and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by additional devices such as EGR or a catalytic converter. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher NOx engine out emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, new aftertreatment systems will incorporate close-coupled DeNOx systems. Since the majority of current diesel emission control systems feature a close-coupled DOC+DPF converter, it seems to be a natural evolutionary step for NOx emission reduction to integrate the SCR catalyst technology onto the DPF.A high…
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Comprehensive Assessment of Soot Particles from Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel and Diesel in a Compression Ignition Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Korea Advanced Inst of Science & Tech-Joonsik Hwang, Yongjin Jung, Choongsik Bae
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0809
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the soot particles in a compression ignition engine was investigated and compared with conventional diesel fuel. The indicated mean effective pressure of approximately 0.65 MPa was tested under an engine speed of 1200 revolutions per minute. The fuels were injected at an injection timing of −5 crank angle degree after top dead center with injection pressures of 80 MPa. Detailed characteristics of particulate matters were analyzed in terms of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis. Soot aggregates were collected on TEM grid by thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine.High-resolution TEM images revealed that the WCO biodiesel soot was composed of smaller primary particle than diesel soot. The mean primary particle diameter was measured as 19.9 nm for WCO biodiesel and 23.7 nm for diesel, respectively. WCO biodiesel showed faster mass reduction of soot particles according to surrounding temperature by TGA analysis. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 933K, WCO biodiesel soot…
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The Combustion and Ignition Characteristics of Varying Blend Ratios of JP-8 and a Coal to Liquid Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel in a Military Relevant Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Bosch North America-Laura Decker
US Army RDECOM-TARDEC-Peter Schihl, Eric Gingrich
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9073
Published 2015-06-01 by SAE International in United States
The U.S. Army currently uses JP-8 for global operations according to the ‘one fuel forward policy’ in order to reduce the logistics burden of supplying a variety of fuels for given Department of Defense ground vehicle applications. One particular challenge with using global JP-8 is the lack of or too broad a range of specified combustion affecting properties including ignition quality, high temperature viscosity, and density. In particular, the ignition quality of JP-8 has dramatically varied throughout the past decade on a global basis covering a range of 29 to 70 cetane index. This key combustion affecting parameter was explored in this study by evaluating a synthesized low ignition quality jet fuel blended in 25% volumetric proportions with JP-8 to effectively cover a cetane number range of 25 to 45 in a single cylinder diesel engine operated at various light, medium, and high load operating conditions. The low ignition quality fuel was a Fischer-Tropsch Synthesized, coal-to-liquid (CTL) paraffinic kerosene (FT-SPK) which exhibited low temperature chemistry behavior at light load operating conditions including unstable combustion at…
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