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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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ERRATUM: On the Potential of Oxygenated Fuels as an Additional Degree of Freedom in the Mixture Formation in Direct Injection Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

RWTH Aachen Univ.-Barbara Graziano, Stefan Pischinger
Vka Rwth-Florian Kremer
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0890.01
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The original Equation 3 found at the bottom of page 64 was erroneous.
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A Novel Method to Evaluate the Combustion Quality of Gasoline Engines: Exhaust Waveform Using AutoEKG Fuel System Analyzer

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Automotive Test Solutions Inc-Bernie Thompson
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology-Nadir Yilmaz, Stephen Davis, Jacob James
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9076
Published 2015-11-01 by SAE International in United States
A tool was developed by Illinois Tool Works (ITW) called the “AutoEKG®FSA” (AutoEKG Fuel System Analyzer) which evaluates combustion quality in an engine by measuring the exhaust pulses of the engine. While many factors are known to influence combustion quality and the wave pattern produced by the instrument, the primary factor in this study was the presence of an asphalt-like material in the air intake system. By examining the waveforms measured by the AutoEKGFSA system before and after carbon cleaning, it has been observed that the engines studied not only run better after the removal of carbon in the system, but the improvements may be measured using this system.
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Testing and Prediction of Material Compatibility of Biofuel Candidates with Elastomeric Materials

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

RWTH Aachen Univ-Stefan Heitzig, Alexander Weinebeck, Hubertus Murrenhoff
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9075
Published 2015-11-01 by SAE International in United States
In this paper compatibility studies of biofuel candidates and similar liquids with the elastomeric materials nitrile butadiene rubber and fluoroelastomer are presented. The results gained with defined reference elastomers are compared to results gained with the materials used in the technical application. For this purpose test specimens are prepared from fuel hoses and the material used for shaft seals of fuel pumps. The experimental results are subsequently used to evaluate prediction approaches based on the HSP- and QSPR-method. Finally a comparison of these two approaches is given.
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Evaluation of H2/N2 as an Alternative to H2/He for Flame Ionization Detector Mix Fuel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Air Liquide-Anuj Kumar, Valentin Rougé, Nathalie Luu, Steven Yu, Valerie Bossoutrot, Steve Hagen, Tracey Jacksier
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2803
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
The Flame Ionization Detection (FID) is the most sensitive and widely used technology for the measurement of total hydrocarbons (THC). In the automotive emission testing of hydrocarbons, the fuel used for the flame in the FID analyzer is a mixture of hydrogen and helium in the ratio of 40:60. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised 40CFR part 1065 in April 2014 to include nitrogen as a balance gas alternative to helium for FID fuel mixtures used in the automotive industry. In addition to the balance gas alternative, the FID fuel blend tolerance was decreased from 40±2% to 40±1% (0.39 to 0.41mol/mol) hydrogen to minimize the impact on analyzer response. The feasibility of nitrogen as a FID fuel balance gas was studied and compared with a helium balance gas to understand the relative impact on emission testing. The study evaluated multiple hydrogen concentrations ranging from 38-42% in both balance gases. The FID fuel was also evaluated to determine the impact of hydrocarbon contamination (0-100ppb) on the instrumental response. Hydrocarbon detection was found to be more sensitive…
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Low Cost Wet Ethanol for Spark-Ignited Engines: Further Investigations

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Mario Martins, Thompson Lanzanova, Rafael Sari
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0954
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study evaluates the performance of an ethanol fueled spark ignited engine running with high levels of hydration. Ethanol is a renewable fuel and has been considered a promising alternative to counteract global warming and to reduce pollutant emissions. Its use is well established in ICE as the main fuel or blended with gasoline. However, due to its lower calorific value, it shows increased fuel consumption when compared to gasoline, rendering its use sometimes less attractive. The energy demand to produce ethanol, especially at the distillation phase, increases exponentially as the concentration of ethanol-in-water goes from 80% onwards. Thus, mixtures with less than 80% of ethanol-in-water would reduce the energy consumption during production, yielding a less expensive fuel. In previous studies, to evaluate the feasibility of wet ethanol as a fuel for spark-ignited engines, results have shown that it was possible to use mixtures of up to 40% of water-in-ethanol. This further experimental results aiming at optimizing combustion phasing for a fixed 50% mass fraction burnt point. The engine used in this research was a…
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Mechanical, Tribological Properties and Surface Characteristics of Developed Polymeric Materials Reinforced by CNTs

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Cairo Univ-Badr S. N. Azzam
National Institute for Standards (NIS)-Salah H. R. Ali
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0690
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this research is to assess and develop a polymeric material consisting of a mixture of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and ultra- high- molecular- weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) reinforced by carbon-nanotube (CNT) by optimizing the mixing concentration of the three constituents. This optimized mixture is accomplished by using a melt extruder-mixing process. An experimental evaluation for accurate assessment of the developed nanocomposite material characteristics is achieved by using a universal tensile test machine and a plint-tribometer pin-on-disc machine. Moreover, the hardness of the material surface and its surface topography are assessed by a hardness tester machine and SEM technique, respectively. Developed samples for testing are classified into two groups of nanocomposites. The first group is created through mixing two pure polymeric UHMWPE and HDPE with different mass ratios of each. While, the other group is created through mixing three components UHMWPE, HDPE and CNTs with constant 50 wt.% of UHMWPE. Thereafter, CNTs with rations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 wt.% to 49.5, 49.0, 48.0, 47.0 and 46.0 wt.% of HDPE to create different…
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Open Access

Linking the Physical Manifestation and Performance Effects of Injector Nozzle Deposits in Modern Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell Global Solutions-Alastair Smith, Rod Williams
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0892
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The formation of deposits within injector nozzle holes of common-rail injection fuel systems fitted to modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the flow of fuel into the combustion chamber. This disruption in fuel flow results in reduced or less efficient combustion and lower power output. Hence there is sustained interest across the automotive industry in studying these deposits, with the ultimate aim of controlling them.In this study, we describe the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging to characterise fuel injector hole deposits at intervals throughout an adaptation of the CEC Direct Injection Common Rail Diesel Engine Nozzle Coking Test, CEC F-98-08 (DW10B test)[1].In addition, a similar adaptation of a previously published Shell vehicle test method [2] was employed to analyse fuel injector hole deposits from a fleet of Euro 5 vehicles. During both studies, deposits were compared after fouling and after subsequent cleaning using a novel fuel borne detergent.In all cases, the use of fuel borne detergents quickly recovered >75% of power lost during the fouling stage of the tests. SEM images showed…
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NOx Trap Three-Way Catalyst (N-TWC) Concept: TWC with NOx Adsorption Properties at Low Temperatures for Cold-Start Emission Control

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Yuichiro Murata, Tomoko Morita, Katsuji Wada, Hiroshi Ohno
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1002
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A new concept for trapping NOx and HC during cold start, the NOx Trap Three-Way Catalyst (N-TWC), is proposed. N-TWC adsorbs NOx at room temperature, and upon reaching activation temperature under suitable air-fuel ratio conditions, it reduces the adsorbed NOx. This allows a reduction in NOx emissions during cold start. N-TWC's reduction mechanism relies on NOx adsorption sites which are shown to be highly dispersed palladium on acid sites in the zeolite. Testing on an actual vehicle equipped with N-TWC confirmed that N-TWC is able to reduce emissions of NOx and HC during cold start, which is a challenge for conventional TWCs.
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Study of an On-board Fuel Reformer and Hydrogen-Added EGR Combustion in a Gasoline Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Koichi Ashida, Hirofumi Maeda, Takashi Araki, Maki Hoshino, Koji Hiraya, Takao Izumi, Masayuki Yasuoka
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0902
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To improve the fuel economy via high EGR, combustion stability is enhanced through the addition of hydrogen, with its high flame-speed in air-fuel mixture. So, in order to realize on-board hydrogen production we developed a fuel reformer which produces hydrogen rich gas. One of the main issues of the reformer engine is the effects of reformate gas components on combustion performance. To clarify the effect of reformate gas contents on combustion stability, chemical kinetic simulations and single-cylinder engine test, in which hydrogen, CO, methane and simulated gas were added to intake air, were executed. And it is confirmed that hydrogen additive rate is dominant on high EGR combustion. The other issue to realize the fuel reformer was the catalyst deterioration. Catalyst reforming and exposure test were carried out to understand the influence of actual exhaust gas on the catalyst performance. Fresh catalyst showed good performance in generating hydrogen, but an aged catalyst generated only half as compared to a fresh catalyst. So we considered measures to improve catalyst performance. According to EGR reforming performance test…
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Ash Accumulation and Impact on Sintered Metal Fiber Diesel Particulate Filters

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Carl Justin Kamp, Paul Folino, Alexander Sappok, Victor W. Wong
Rypos Inc-Yujun Wang, Jim Ernstmeyer, Amin Saeid, Rakesh Singh, Bachir Kharraja
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1012
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
While metal fiber filters have successfully shown a high degree of particle retention functionality for various sizes of diesel engines with a low pressure drop and a relatively high filtration efficiency, little is known about the effects of lubricant-derived ash on the fiber filter systems.Sintered metal fiber filters (SMF-DPF), when used downstream from a diesel engine, effectively trap and oxidize diesel particulate matter via an electrically heated regeneration process where a specific voltage and current are applied to the sintered alloy fibers. In this manner the filter media essentially acts as a resistive heater to generate temperatures high enough to oxidize the carbonaceous particulate matter, which is typically in excess of 600°C. The regeneration process does not require additional fuel, such as in the case of active regeneration in conventional/ceramic wall-flow diesel particulate filters (DPF), since the energy required for regeneration typically comes from another source like an auxiliary battery. In addition, the SMF-DPF is not sensitive to fuel quality (especially fuel sulfur levels), engine load and exhaust temperature.Just as in the case of the…
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