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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Combustion Modeling of Landfill Gas Fueled Spark Ignition Engine Performance

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Western Michigan Univ.-Daniel Swain, S O Bade Shrestha
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1471
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Landfill gas (LFG) is a waste-product resource composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide that can be collected and used to produce power either by extracting the methane or using the landfill gas directly in an internal combustion engine in what amounts to a net-negative greenhouse gas emission process. The carbon dioxide component of LFG dilutes the fuel and absorbs some of the heat of combustion, but also suppresses knock. A model is developed, using KIVA-4 code, to simulate engine performance at various operating conditions and evaluate the benefits of methane purification and direct use of LFG as a fuel.It was found that landfill gas used directly at higher compression ratios than can be used for pure methane fuel produces higher fuel efficiency than can be achieved using pure methane. Furthermore the study has shown that the fuel efficiency of the engine can be achieved within 5% of that of pure methane fuel for landfill gas, diluted up to 1:1 with carbon dioxide by simply adjusting the spark timing of the engine. A model for…
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Octane Response in a Downsized, Highly Boosted Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Jaguar Land Rover-J.W.G. Turner, A. Popplewell
Shell Global Solutions-S.M. Remmert, R.F. Cracknell, R. Head, A. Schuetze
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1397
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly strict government emissions regulations in combination with consumer demand for high performance vehicles is driving gasoline engine development towards highly downsized, boosted direct injection technologies. In these engines, fuel consumption is improved by reducing pumping, friction and heat losses, yet performance is maintained by operating at higher brake mean effective pressure. However, the in-cylinder conditions of these engines continue to diverge from traditional naturally aspirated technologies, and especially from the Cooperative Fuels Research engine used to define the octane rating scales. Engine concepts are thus key platforms with which to screen the influence of fundamental fuel properties on future engine performance.‘ULTRABOOST’, a collaborative research project which is co-funded by the Technology Strategy Board (TSB), the UK's innovation agency, is a downsized, highly boosted, 2.0L in-line 4 cylinder prototype engine, designed to achieve 35% CO2 emissions reduction without compromising the performance of a 5.0L V8 naturally aspirated production engine. To probe engine response to fuel, a matrix of 14 formulations was tested at several engine conditions. This is the first in a series of fuel…
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A Novel Diagnostics Tool for Measuring Soot Agglomerates Size Distribution in Used Automotive Lubricant Oils

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

University of Nottingham-Antonino La Rocca, Gianluca Di Liberto, Paul Shayler, Christopher Parmenter, Mike Fay
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1479
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The determination of size distribution of soot particles and agglomerates in oil samples using a Nanosight LM14 to perform Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) is described. This is the first application of the technique to sizing soot-in-oil agglomerates and offers the advantages of relatively high rates of sample analysis and low cost compared to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Lubricating oil samples were drawn from the sump of automotive diesel engines run under a mix of light duty operating conditions. The oil samples were diluted with heptane before analysing. Results from NTA analysis were compared with the outputs of a more conventional analysis based on Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). This work shows that soot-in-oil exists as agglomerates with average size of 115 nm. This is also in good agreement with TEM analysis carried out in a previous work. NTA can measure soot particles in polydisperse oil solutions and report the size distribution of soot-in-oil aggregates. NTA allows for an estimation of soot mass contained in the soot-laden oil samples. The estimated value was compared with soot mass…
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Spray Visualization and Characterization of a Dual-Fuel Injector using Diesel and Gasoline

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

QuantLogic Corp.-Deyang Hou
Univ. of Illinois-Karthik Nithyanandan, Gregory Major, Chia-Fon Lee
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1403
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper focuses on the spray and atomization characteristics of a Dual-Fuel Injector (DFI) which includes a primary and a secondary fuel inlet. Three injectors were analyzed in this study. Apart from the DFI, two conventional diesel injectors were tested as baselines for comparison - a piezo-electric and a solenoid injector. The rail pressures ranged from 200 - 500 bar for the conventional injectors. The DFI was tested first as a single-fuel injector (by sealing the secondary inlet) at pressures ranging from 100 - 300 bar, and then in its dual-fuel mode with the primary inlet pressure ranging from 100 - 300 bar, and the secondary inlet at 25 bar higher than the primary pressure. Injection duration of 0.5 ms was chosen for the experiment. High-speed Mie scattering images were recorded to capture the spray evolution. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements were conducted at different locations in the spray for the acquisition of droplet sizes and velocity distributions. The high-speed images showed that the conventional injectors produced a spray with a wider spray cone angle,…
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Low Temperature Heat Release of Palm and Soy Biodiesel in Late Injection Low Temperature Combustion

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Texas A&M Univ.-Brandon T. Tompkins, Hoseok Song, Timothy J. Jacobs
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1381
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The first stage of ignition in saturated hydrocarbon fuels is characterized as low temperature heat release (LTHR) or cool flame combustion. LTHR takes place as a series of isomerization reactions at temperatures from 600K to 900K, and is often detectable in HCCI, rapid compression machines, and early injection low temperature combustion (LTC). The experimental investigation presented attempts to determine the behavior of LTHR in late injection low temperature combustion in a medium duty diesel as fuel varies and the influence of such behavior on LTC torque and emissions. Two experiments were performed: the first studies two operating modes (conventional combustion with −8° after top dead center injection timing and 0% EGR and low temperature combustion with 0° after top dead center injection timing and nominally 42% EGR level) with standard petroleum diesel, palm biodiesel, and soy biodiesel; the second studies a sweep of EGR level from 0% to nominally 45% with petroleum diesel and palm biodiesel with a constant injection timing of 0° after top dead center. LTHR is apparent in all fuels' rates of…
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High Speed Imaging Study on the Spray Characteristics of Dieseline at Elevated Temperatures and Back Pressures

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Tsinghua University-Liang Zheng, Yanfei Li, Zhi Wang, Jian-Xin Wang
Tsinghua University, University of Birmingham-Hongming Xu
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1415
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Dieseline combustion as a concept combines the advantages of gasoline and diesel by offline or online blending the two fuels. Dieseline has become an attractive new compression ignition combustion concept in recent years and furthermore an approach to a full-boiling-range fuel. High speed imaging with near-parallel backlit light was used to investigate the spray characteristics of dieseline and pure fuels with a common rail diesel injection system in a constant volume vessel. The results were acquired at different blend ratios, and at different temperatures and back pressures at an injection pressure of 100MPa. The penetrations and the evaporation states were compared with those of gasoline and diesel. The spray profile was analyzed in both area and shape with statistical methods. The effect of gasoline percentage on the evaporation in the fuel spray was evaluated. The blend ratio shows large impacts particularly in liquid phase area, on the liquid core length and the gas-to-liquid ratio (by area) at higher temperatures. It was found that the liquid phase areas and liquid core lengths produce a profile with…
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A Comparative Study of Emission Characteristics of Propanol Isomers/Gasoline Blends Combined with EGR

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Xi'an Jiaotong University-Jing Gong, Jian Cai, Chenglong Tang
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1454
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Propanol isomers are oxygenated fuels and have higher octane number and energy density compared to methanol and ethanol. In recent years, with the development of fermentation method, propanol isomers have gained more attention as engine additive to reduce the emission and the consumption of traditional fossil fuels. In this study, Hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) emission characteristic of propanol isomers/gasoline blends were comparatively investigated at different blending ratios (0, 10, 20, 40 and 100) combined with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in a spark-ignition engine. The number distribution of particulate matter emission is mainly studied in addition to the particulate matter mass distribution. Results show that pure propanol isomers yield significantly different emission characteristics compared to the other blends. With the increase of blending ratio, CO emission shows a decreased trend while unidentified HC emissions are observed except pure propanol isomers. And particulate matter number concentration is increased as the increase of propanol isomers proportion. With the introduction of EGR, particulate number concentration and CO emissions decrease. Moreover, n-propanol/gasoline blends produce higher…
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Measuring the Impact of Engine Oils and Fuels on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Downsized Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BP International Ltd-James Moss, John Williams
University of Cambridge-Orian Welling, Nick Collings
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1219
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
One of the limits on the maximum fuel efficiency benefit to be gained from turbocharged, downsized gasoline engines is the occurrence of low speed pre-ignition (LSPI). LSPI may lead to high pressures and extreme knock (megaknock or superknock) which can cause severe engine damage. Though the mechanism leading to megaknock is not completely resolved, LSPI is thought to arise from local auto-ignition of areas in the cylinder which are rich in low ignition delay “contaminants” such as engine oil and/or heavy ends of gasoline. These contaminants are introduced to the combustion chamber at various points in the engine cycle (e.g. entering from the top land crevice during blow-down or washed from the cylinder walls during DI wall impingement).This paper describes a method for testing the propensity of different contaminants to cause a local pre-ignition in a gasoline engine. During one cycle, a small amount of contaminant is injected into one cylinder of a 4 cylinder engine. The spark is suppressed during this or the following cycle to allow detection of local pre-ignition events after spark…
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Synthesis of Linseed oil Biodiesel using a Non-Catalytic Supercritical Transesterification Process

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

CASRAE, Delhi Technological University-Dileep Kumar Gupta, Abhishek Sharma, Varun Pathak
Delhi Technological University-Naveen Kumar
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1955
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Due to high energy demand and limited availability of fossil fuels, the energy necessity becomes a point of apprehension as it results in hike of fuel prices. It is essential to develop renewable energy resources while considering the impact on environment. In the last decade, demand of alternative fuels has increased a lot. Therefore, researchers have already started working on the aim of developing a green fuel to overcome the future energy demand. And as we know that the biodiesel is generally prepared from the non-edible and renewable resources thus, it can be among the competitive alternative future fuels. Besides that, it does not require any prior engine modifications for its usual advantage among other alternative fuels while using it within certain boundaries. However, the process biodiesel production is in itself time consuming which increases the cost of production while decreasing the yield. Supercritical method is drawing major attention for its efficient means with overcoming the negatives of conventional production processes. This method generally results in a high conversion rate of triglycerides into the FAME's…
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Particulate Morphology and Toxicity of an Alcohol Fuelled HCCI Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Indian Institute of Technology Ropar-Rakesh Kumar Maurya
Indian Institute of Technololgy Kanpur-Avinash Kumar Agarwal
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9076
Published 2014-04-15 by SAE International in United States
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are attracting attention as next-generation internal combustion engines mainly because of very low NOx and PM emission potential and excellent thermal efficiency. Particulate emissions from HCCI engines have been usually considered negligible however recent studies suggest that PM number emissions from HCCI engines cannot be neglected.This study is therefore conducted on a modified four cylinder diesel engine to investigate this aspect of HCCI technology. One cylinder of the engine is modified to operate in HCCI mode for the experiments and port fuel injection technique is used for preparing homogenous charge in this cylinder. Experiments are conducted at 1200 and 2400 rpm engine speeds using gasoline, ethanol, methanol and butanol fuels. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to measure the mass of the particulates emitted on a pre-conditioned filter paper. The collected particulate matter (PM) was subjected to chemical analyses in order to assess the amount of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) and trace metals (marker of toxicity) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). Field emission scanning electron…
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