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An Investigation of a Locomotive Structural Crashworthiness Using Finite Element Simulation

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India-Sunil Kumar Sharma
Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be University) Mullana, India-Rakesh Chandmal Sharma
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-04-0019
Published 2018-11-02 by SAE International in United States
In this article, the crashworthiness of a locomotive is assessed through finite element analysis (FEA). The present investigation is focused on the analysis of a locomotive with driving cab to improve the modeling approach and exploring the intrinsic structural weaknesses to improve its crashworthiness. The analyses are conducted according to the EN 15227 standard, which provide crashworthiness requirements for locomotive structure. The finite element model is validated in terms of acceleration and energy balance by the experimental results. The validated model is further used to assess the crashworthiness behavior at a higher impact speed, that is, 100, 160, and 225 km/hr. It has been noticed that local buckling occurs at different points, which reduces the desired progressive damage behavior in the locomotive. The results indicate that at higher speed, large plastic deformation occurs in the frontal part of the locomotive. The maximum deformation is 8.22 m which occurs at the speed of 225 km/hr.
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Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of In-Cylinder Pressures to Validate High-Range VCR

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Kettering University, USA-William Edwards
Saint Martin’s University, USA-Shelbie L. Davis, Frank Washko
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-04-0020
Published 2018-10-22 by SAE International in United States
This article serves as a proof-of-concept and feasibility analysis regarding a variable compression ratio (VCR) engine design utilizing an exhaust valve opening during the compression stroke to vary the compression ratio instead of the traditional method of changing the cylinder or piston geometry patented by Ford, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Peugeot, Gomecsys, et al. [1]. In this concept, an additional exhaust valve opening was used to reduce the virtual compression ratio of the engine, without geometric changes. A computational fluid dynamics model in ANSYS Forte was used to simulate a single-cylinder, cold flow, four-stroke, direct injection engine cycle. In this model, the engine was simulated at a compression ratio of 10:1. Then, the model was modified to a compression ratio of 17:1. Then, an additional valve opening at the end of the compression stroke was added to the 17:1 high compression model. The valve opening at the end of the compression stroke was used to bleed off a small amount of pressure. This allows an engine to be built for a geometric 17:1 compression ratio (longer cylinder)…
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Investigation of Fatigue Life of Wheels in Commercial Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Pimpri Chinchwad College of Engineering-Umesh Sadashiv Bawaskar, P. Awasare
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-04-0017
Published 2018-08-21 by SAE International in United States
In India, vehicle population increases every day along with road accidents by 2.5% every year. About 7.7% of accidents are caused by wheel separation, 60% of which are due to nut-related problems. Wheel separations in vehicles occur due to fastener issues and fatigue failures in bolts. A study of the reasons for and mechanisms of nut loosening showed that left-hand side wheels detached and fracture failure occurred in right-hand side studs. Fatigue life of wheels with Nord-Lock washer and without washer is determined by using numerical analysis as per the IS 9438 cornering fatigue test. These numerical results are compared with experimental results.
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Two-Way Coupled CFD Approach for Predicting Gear Temperature of Oil Jet Lubricated Transmissions

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Eaton-Paul Mason, Carlos Wink
Eaton Technologies Pvt Ltd-Shrikrishna Deshpande, Himanshu Joshi, Jaiganesh Madhavan
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-03-0013
Published 2018-07-24 by SAE International in United States
This article focuses on the development of a two-way coupled methodology to predict gear temperature of oil jet lubricated transmissions using commercial software for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The proposed methodology applies an overset mesh technique to model the gear interlocking motion, multiphase of air-oil mixture, and heat transfer. Two gear pairs were used to develop and validate the methodology, an overdrive helical gear pair of a commercial vehicle transmission and a standard spur gear pair. Different oil jet lubrication methods were investigated using the proposed methodology, such as oil jet directed at the into-mesh position and at the out-of-mesh position. This investigation showed that out of mesh lubrication direction shows better cooling performance which is in well agreement with previous studies of literature. Gear temperature was measured on the spur gears under several operating conditions by a set of thermocouples placed near the tooth contacting surface and 180 degree apart. A good correlation of predictions and measurement results were obtained for all cases within 12 °C of maximum deviation. The proposed two-way coupled CFD…
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3D-CFD-Study of Aerodynamic Losses in Compressor Impellers

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Institute of Internal Combustion Engines-Fangming Zhang, Roland Baar
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-03-0015
Published 2018-07-05 by SAE International in United States
Due to the increasing requirements for efficiency, the wide range of characteristics and the improved possibilities of modern development and production processes, compressors in turbochargers have become more individualized in order to adapt to the requirements of internal combustion engines. An understanding of the working mechanisms as well as an understanding of the way that losses occur in the flow allows a reduced development effort during the optimization process. This article presents three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigations of the loss mechanisms and quantitative calculations of individual losses. The 3D-CFD method used in this article will reduce the drawbacks of one-dimensional calculation as far as possible. For example, the twist of the blades is taken into account and the “discrete” method is used for loss calculation instead of the “average” method. The results show that at the same blade speed, the clearance loss reaches its maximum with a mass flow of 0.07 kg/s. Secondary losses are highest at low mass flows and reduce as the mass flow increases. However, at high mass flows the…
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Sliding Mode Control of Hydraulic Excavator for Automated Grading Operation

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

The University of Alabama-Jiaqi Xu, Hwan-Sik Yoon
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-02-0010
Published 2018-06-07 by SAE International in United States
Although ground grading is one of the most common tasks that hydraulic excavators perform in typical work sites, proper grading is not easy for less-skilled operators as it requires coordinated manipulation of multiple hydraulic cylinders. In order to help alleviate this difficulty, automated grading systems are considered as an effective alternative to manual operations of hydraulic excavators. In this article, a sliding mode controller design is presented for automated grading control of a hydraulic excavator. First, an excavator manipulator model is developed in Simulink by using SimMechanics and SimHydraulics toolboxes. Then, a sliding mode controller is designed to control the manipulator to trace a predefined trajectory for a grading task. For a comparison study, a PI controller is used to control the manipulator to perform a grading task following the same desired trajectory and the performance is compared with those obtained by the sliding mode controller. The simulation results show that the sliding mode controller can control the grading operation with less tracking errors than the PI controller.
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Stability Analysis of Combined Braking System of Tractor-Semitrailer Based on Phase-Plane Method

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Jiangsu University-Ren He, Zhecheng Jing, Xiaomin Shen
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-02-0012
Published 2018-06-04 by SAE International in United States
An analysis method for the stability of combined braking system of tractor-semitrailer based on phase-plane is investigated. Based on a 9 degree of freedom model, considering longitudinal load transfer, nonlinear model of tire and other factors, the braking stability of tractor-semitrailer is analyzed graphically on the phase plane. The stability of both tractor and semitrailer with different retarder gear is validated with the energy plane, β plane, yaw angle plane and hinged angle plane. The result indicates that in the long downhill with curve condition, both tractor and semitrailer show good stability when retarder is working at 1st and 2nd gear, and when it is at 3rd gear, the tractor is close to be unstable while semitrailer is unstable already. Besides, tractor and semitrailer both lose stability when retarder is working at the 4th gear.
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Correlation Model of Subjective and Objective Evaluation Based on Grey GM(0,N) for Automobile Sound Quality

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Nanjing Institute Of Technology-Zhendong Zhao
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-02-0008
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
Correlation analysis of subjective and objective evaluation for automobile sound quality is an important topic in automobile technology fields. In view of the deficiency of multi-dimensional linear regression analysis and the theoretical merits of grey system method, grey comprehensive relational degree was calculated to analyze the contribution of objective evaluation data to subjective evaluation. The main objective variables affecting the subjective feeling were determined. The variables include loudness, sharpness and shaking degrees. Grey GM(0,4) model was established as a quantitative expression for describing the subjective and objective evaluation correlation. The results of residual test and posterior-variance-test show that the established model was accurate and the model can be used to analyze and predict subjective and objective evaluation data of automobile sound quality.
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Investigation on Underhood Thermal Analysis of Truck Platooning

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Argonne National Laboratory-Surya Narayana Prasa Vegendla, Tanju Sofu
Cummins, Inc.-Rohit Saha, Long-Kung Hwang, Mahesh Madurai Kumar
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-01-0001
Published 2018-03-22 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a combined aero-thermal computational fluid dynamic (CFD) evaluation of platooning medium duty commercial vehicles in two highway configurations. Thermal analysis comparison is made between an approach that includes vehicle drag reduction on engine heat rejection and one that does not by assuming a constant heat rejection based on open road conditions. The paper concludes that accounting for aerodynamic drag reduction on engine heat load provides a more real world evaluation than assuming a constant heat load based on open road conditions. A 3D CFD underhood thermal simulations are performed in two different vehicle platooning configurations; (i) single-lane and (ii) two-lane traffic conditions. The vehicle platooning consists of two identical vehicles, i.e. leading and trailing vehicle. In this work, heat exchangers are modeled by two different heat rejection rate models. In the first model, a constant heat rejection rates are considered as similar to no-traffic vehicle condition. In the other model, a varied heat rejection rates are implemented by considering an aerodynamic influence on fuel consumption rates. In a constant heat rejection rate…
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Investigation of Passive Porosity as a Means for Bluff-Body Drag Reduction

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Brunel University-Alvin Gatto
Cambridge University-Holger Babinsky
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-01-0006
Published 2018-03-16 by SAE International in United States
An investigation into the capability of passive porosity to reduce the drag of a bluff-body is presented. This initial work involves integrating varying degrees of porosity into the side and back faces of a small-scale model to determine optimum conditions for maximum drag reduction. Both force and pressure measurements at differing degrees of model yaw are presented, with the conditions for optimum performance, identified. At a length-based Reynolds number of 2.3 × 106, results showed a maximum drag reduction of 12% at zero yaw when the ratio of the open area on the back face relative to the side faces was between two and four. For all non-zero yaw angles tested, this ratio reduced to approximately two, with the drag benefit reducing to 6% at 10.5 degrees. From a supplementary theoretical analysis, calculated optimum bleed rate into the base for maximum drag reduction, also showed reasonable agreement to other results reported previously.
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