Terms:
SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains
AND
7
AND
3
The SAE MOBILUS platform will continue to be accessible and populated with high quality technical content during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. x
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Efficient Supercapacitors Based on Co9S8/Graphene Composites for Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

JIlin University-Yu Yang, Fangwu Ma, Wei Han, Junzhi Li, Junming Cao, Ying Zhao, Liang Wu
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0440
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, SC is recognized as a key element of hybrid energy storage system in modern energy supply chain for electric vehicles (EVs). Co9S8 as a promising electrode material attracts much attention for supercapacitor owing to its superior electrochemical capacity. However, its poor stability and electronic conductivity, which result in inferior cycling performance and rate capability, have seriously limited the practical application of Co9O8 in supercapacitors.In this article, Co9S8 nanoparticles were embedded in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via a simple anneal approach as high efficient and stable electrodes for SCs. The Co9S8/rGO composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Co9S8 nanoparticles were inserted tightly between the rGO layers due to strong intermolecular forces, preventing the cluster in reduction process of rGO from graphene oxide (GO). The rGO provides the conductive network for Co9S8 and shortens the ion diffusion paths, improving rate performance and enhancing the stability of the electrode material. The as-prepared Co9S8/rGO takes full advantages of high capacitance performance of Co9S8 nanoparticles and excellent conductivity…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development of Electric Powertrain for CLARITY PLUG-IN HYBRID

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Tomoya Yamagishi, Takashi Ishikura
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0415
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Honda has developed the 2018 model CLARITY PLUG-IN HYBRID. Honda’s new plug-in hybrid is a midsize sedan and shares a body platform with the CLARITY FUEL CELL and the CLARITY ELECTRIC. The vehicle’s electric powertrain boosts driving performance as an electric vehicle (EV) over Honda’s previous plug-in hybrid.The CLARITY PLUG-IN HYBRID’s electric powertrain consists of a traction motor and generator built into the transmission, a Power Control Unit (PCU) positioned above the transmission, an Intelligent Power Unit (IPU) fitted under the floor, and an onboard charger fitted below the rear trunk.The PCU integrates an inverter that drives the traction motor, an inverter that drives the generator, and a DC-DC converter to boost battery voltage (referred to as a “Voltage Control Unit (VCU)” below). The VCU employs an interleaved circuit configuration and a coupled inductor and realizes approximately three times the rated continuous power and approximately three times the power density of a standard unit employed in a hybrid vehicle.The IPU contains 17 kWh high-capacity battery modules and a 12 V DC-DC converter. A coolant-cooling method…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Charger Sizing for Long-Range Battery Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Ford Electric Vehicle-Daniel Kok
Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Jaswant Dhillon, N Khalid Ahmed, Kevin Rhodes
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0427
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The falling cost of lithium ion batteries combined with an ongoing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is driving the proliferation of affordable long-range battery electric vehicles (BEVs). However, an inherent challenge with longer-range BEVs is the increased time required to fully charge the battery using standard 120/240 V AC power outlets. One approach to address this issue involves moving to higher power onboard AC chargers; however, household and utility wiring may not allow for the full capability of these higher power chargers. This study explores the typical time available for vehicle charging during an overnight stop based on real-world customer “MyFord Mobile” (MFM) data collected from Ford electrified vehicles. Through this approach, the available overnight time for recharging and required energy to be added to the battery are evaluated under the influence of typical daily driving distances, extreme ambient temperatures, and value charging time windows.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development of Standardized Battery Pack for Next-Generation PHEVs in Considering the Effect of External Pressure on Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Hyundai Motor Company-Yong Hwan Choi, Hae Kyu Lim, Jeong-Hun Seo, Woo Jin Shin, Jae Hoon Choi, Jin Ho Park
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0439
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The performance and marketability of eco-friendly vehicles highly depend on their high-voltage battery system. Lithium-ion pouch cells have advantages of high energy density and cost-effectiveness than other types of batteries. However, due to their low mechanical stability, their characteristics are strongly influenced by external conditions. Especially, external pressure on pouch cell is a crucial factor for the performance, life cycle, and structural safety of battery pack. Therefore, optimizing pressure level has been a critical consideration in designing battery pack structures for lithium-ion pouch cell. In this work, we developed an optimized structure of the battery module and pack to apply appropriate pressure on pouch cells. They also include a standardization strategy to meet the varied demand in capacity and power for automotive application. The footprint of cell is standardized, and the thickness of cell is varied according to the capacity of a cell which is determined by the number of electrodes and thickness of active materials. The module and pack structures comprise standard and unique parts. The standard parts hold a cell to ensure structural…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Virtual 48 V Mild Hybridization: Efficient Validation by Engine-in-the-Loop

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

RWTH Aachen University-Serge Klein, Philip Griefnow, Daniel Guse, Feihong Xia, Jakob Andert
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0410
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
New 12 V/48 V power net architectures are potential solutions to close the gap between customer needs and legislative requirements. In order to exploit their potential, an increased effort is needed for functional implementation and hardware integration. Shifting of development tasks to earlier phases (frontloading) is a promising solution to streamline the development process and to increase the maturity level at early stages.This study shows the potential of the frontloading of development tasks by implementing a virtual 48 V mild hybridization in an engine-in-the-loop (EiL) setup. Advanced simulation technics like functional mock-up interface- (FMI) based co-simulation are utilized for the seamless integration of the real-time (RT) simulation models and allow a modular simulation framework as well as a decrease in development time. As baseline, an existing and validated co-simulation consisting of a GT-POWER engine model, a SimulationX transmission model, and a dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models (ASM) vehicle dynamics model is used. A Simulink-based dual 12 V/48 V power net model is developed to extend the base model. The 48 V side is mainly composed of…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Self-Discharge Observation for Onboard Safety Monitoring of Automotive Li-Ion Cells: Accelerated Procedures and Application Concept

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Ruhr-University Bochum-Peter Haussmann, Joachim Melbert
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0449
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Recent advances in energy density of Li-ion cells together with high-current fast charging ask for improved strategies for onboard safety and reliability observation of the cells. Potential degradation effects are stimulated by lithium plating and dendrite growth. The latter may ultimately cause an internal short circuit of the cell and can lead to serious damage. Increased self-discharge is an early indicator for safety-critical cell conditions. In this work, accelerated methods for self-discharge determination of Li-ion cells are presented. They are based on the analysis of cell voltage gradients during idle periods and can be applied in state-of-the-art battery management systems (BMS) performing low-drift measurement. However, transition into the idle state after driving requires a settling time of several hours before the voltage gradient can be extracted. For the new accelerated self-discharge determination, a model-based approach was chosen, which also considers aging effects of the open circuit voltage (OCV) and the cell capacity. The self-discharge behavior of more than 100 automotive cells is studied using the presented methods during a 48-week aging experiment with real driving…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Assessing a Hybrid Supercharged Engine for Diluted Combustion Using a Dynamic Drive Cycle Simulation

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

University of Michigan-Shima Nazari, Robert Middleton, Kanji Sugimori, Jason Siegel, Anna Stefanopoulou
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0969
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
This study uses full drive cycle simulation to compare the fuel consumption of a vehicle with a turbocharged (TC) engine to the same vehicle with an alternative boosting technology, namely, a hybrid supercharger, in which a planetary gear mechanism governs the power split to the supercharger between the crankshaft and a 48 V 5 kW electric motor. Conventional mechanically driven superchargers or electric superchargers have been proposed to improve the dynamic response of boosted engines, but their projected fuel efficiency benefit depends heavily on the engine transient response and driver/cycle aggressiveness. The fuel consumption benefits depend on the closed-loop engine responsiveness, the control tuning, and the torque reserve needed for each technology. To perform drive cycle analyses, a control strategy is designed that minimizes the boost reserve and employs high rates of combustion dilution via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The fully dynamic drive cycle results are compared to steady state (SS) GT-Power projections, using residence time spent in various SS operating points. The fuel consumption benefits enabled by the hybrid supercharger are simulated for the…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Predictive Multi-Objective Operation Strategy Considering Battery Cycle Aging for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Robert Bosch GmbH-Jiao Li, Thomas Huber
VKM TU Darmstadt-Christian Beidl
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1011
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Due to the new CO2 targets for vehicles, electrification of powertrains and operation strategies for electrified powertrains have drawn more attention. This article presents a predictive multi-objective operation strategy for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which simultaneously minimizes the fuel consumption and the cycle aging of traction batteries. This proposed strategy shows better performance by using predictive information and high robustness to inaccuracy of predictive information.In this work, the benefits of the developed operation strategies are demonstrated in a strong hybrid electric vehicle (sHEV) with P2-configuration. For the cycle aging of a lithium-ion battery, an empirical model is built up with Gaussian processes based on experimental data. Two different optimization algorithms “Deterministic Dynamic Programming” (DDP) and extended “Multi-Objective Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy” (MO-ECMS) are carried out with a priori knowledge of cycle information to obtain the Pareto front between fuel consumption and battery cycle aging. In Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC), halved battery cycle aging leads to 4% more fuel consumption compared with the original Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS).In order to achieve the…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Solar Panels on Electrified Vehicles: Applications and Off-Cycle CO2 Credit

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Kevin Rhodes, Erik Christen, Daniel Kok
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0426
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive investigation of the opportunities and applications of using solar panels in electrified vehicles. The use of photovoltaic (PV) panels as an auxiliary energy source of on-board fuel in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), full hybrid electric vehicles (FHEVs), and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) is investigated. The electrical architectures and the benefits of various possible applications are presented, such as active vehicle cabin ventilation, charging the low voltage battery, and charging the high voltage (HV) traction battery to extended driving ranges. In addition, the possibility of using PV panels to cool down the HV battery in extreme temperature environments is also investigated, supported by experimental tests used to properly model the thermal behavior of the HV battery and the effect of the cooling. This work also analyzes the CO2 off-cycle credits made available, by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and European Commission (EC), for automakers, which equip their vehicles with solar panels. Finally, the challenges and market outlook that make the on-board solar panel…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Stochastic Synthesis of Representative and Multidimensional Driving Cycles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

COMPREDICT-Martin Zeller, Stéphane Foulard
TU Darmstadt-Arved Esser, Stephan Rinderknecht
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0095
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Driving cycles play a fundamental role in the design of components, in the optimization of control strategies for drivetrain topologies, and in the identification of vehicle properties. The focus on a single or a few test cycles results in a risk of non-optimal or even poor design regarding the real usage profiles. Ideally, multiple different driving cycles that are representative of the real and scattering operating conditions are used. Therefore, tools for the stochastic generation of representative driving cycles are required, and many works have addressed this issue with different approaches. Until now, the stochastic generation of representative testing cycles has been limited to low dimensionality, and only a few works have studied higher dimensionality using Markov chain theory. However, it is mandatory to create tools that can stochastically generate multidimensional cycles incorporating all relevant operating conditions and maintaining signal dependency at the same time. For this purpose, a new method to synthesize multidimensional and representative testing cycles that can handle constraints and is suited for many evaluation criteria is presented in this study. The…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available