This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions

Journal Article
2020-01-0352
ISSN: 2641-9637, e-ISSN: 2641-9645
Published April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions
Sector:
Citation: Joshi, A., "Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions," SAE Int. J. Adv. & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 2(5):2479-2507, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-0352.
Language: English

References

  1. Joshi , A. Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions SAE Int. J. Adv. & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 1 2 734 761 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0314
  2. https://ec.europa.eu/clima/news/average-co2-emissions-new-light-duty-vehicles-registered-europe-increased-2018-requiring_en
  3. http://www.miit.gov.cn/n1146285/n1146352/n3054355/n3057585/n3057589/c7552776/content.html
  4. Yang , Z. and Rutherford , D. https://theicct.org/publications/japan-2030-fuel-economy-standards 2019
  5. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2014_2019/plmrep/COMMITTEES/ENVI/DV/2019/11-06/item25_RDEregulation_EN.pdf
  6. Burtscher , H. , Lutz , T. , and Mayer , A. A New Periodic Technical Inspection for Particle Emissions of Vehicles Emission Control Science and Technology 5 279 287 2019
  7. 2019
  8. Tikku , P. Indian Real Driving Emissions (RDE) the Emission Control Technologies Conference Pune, India Nov. 2019
  9. Kuson , M. Technical Standards and Future Trend of Diesel Engines in Thailand 2ndAsia-Pacific Diesel Engine and Emission Summit Bangkok, Thailand 2019
  10. https://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/PE-60-2019-INIT/en/pdf
  11. Proposed Advanced Clean Trucks Regulation CARB Board Hearing Sacramento, CA 2019 https://ww3.arb.ca.gov/board/books/2019/121219/pres19-12-4.pdf
  12. Preble , C.V. , Harley , R.A. , and Kirchstetter , T.W. Control Technology-Driven Changes to In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions of Nitrogenous Species and Related Environmental Impacts Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019 https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b04763
  13. Badshah , H. , Posada , F. , and Muncrief , R. https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/NOx_Emissions_In_Use_HDV_US_20191125.pdf
  14. Posada , F. , Badshah , H. , Isenstadt , A. , and Muncrief , R. HDV NOx Emissions Baseline Analysis the 12th Integer Emissions Summit USA Indianapolis, IN 2019
  15. https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/our-work/programs/heavy-duty-low-nox
  16. Nelson , B. Journey to Lower NOx Limits through EPA’s Cleaner Trucks Initiative the 12th Integer Emissions Summit USA Indianapolis, IN 2019
  17. Spears , M. EMA’s Views on Achieving the Most Cost-Effective NOx Reductions the 12th Integer Emissions Summit USA Indianapolis, IN 2019
  18. Robertson , W. Off Road Update: Directions, Research, & Incentives the 12th Integer Emissions Summit USA Indianapolis, IN 2019
  19. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32019R1939&from=EN
  20. Giechaskiel , B. , Bonnel , P. , Perujo , A. , and Dilara , P. Solid Particle Number (SPN) Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) in the European Legislation: A Review Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16 4819 2019 10.3390/ijerph16234819
  21. Grigoratos , T. , Fontaras , G. , Giechaskiel , B. , and Zacharof , N. Real World Emissions Performance of Heavy-Duty Euro VI Diesel Vehicles Atmospheric Environment 201 348 359 2019
  22. Giechaskiel , B. , Lähde , T. , Schwelberger , M. , Kleinbach , T. et al. Particle Number Measurements Directly from the Tailpipe for Type Approval of Heavy-Duty Engines Appl. Sci. 9 4418 2019 10.3390/app9204418
  23. Mamakos , A. , Schwelberger , M. , Fierz , M. , and Giechaskiel , B. Effect of Selective catalytic Reduction on Exhaust Nonvolatile Particle Emissions of Euro VI Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Vehicles Aerosol Science and Technology 53 8 898 910 2019 10.1080/02786826.2019.1610153
  24. Weiss , M. , Irrgang , L. , Kiefer , A.T. , Roth , J.R. et al. Mass- and Power-Related Efficiency Trade-Offs and CO2 Emissions of Compact Passenger Cars Journal of Cleaner Production 243 118326 2020
  25. Kargul , J. , Stuhldreher , M. , Barba , D. , Schenk , C. et al. Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry 2.5-Liter Atkinson Cycle Engine with Cooled-EGR SAE Int. J. Advances & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 1 2 601 638 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0249
  26. Kapus , P. Gasoline Engine Concepts for Future Electrified Powertrains the 19th Hyundai-Kia International Powertrain Conference Korea 2019
  27. Sellers , R. , Osborne , R. , Cai , W. , and Wang , Y. Designing and Testing the Next Generation of High-Efficiency Gasoline Engine Achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency the 28th Aachen Colloquium Automobile and Engine Technology 2019
  28. Nakai , E. , Goto , T. , Ezumi , K. , Tsumura , Y. et al. MAZDA SKYACTIV-X 2.0L Gasoline Engine the 28th Aachen Colloquium Automobile and Engine Technology 2019
  29. Sellnau , M. , Foster , M. , Moore , W. , Sinnamon , J. et al. Pathway to 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency Using Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1154 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1154
  30. Sellnau , M. , Cho , K. , Zhang , Y. , and Cleary , D. Pathway to 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency Using Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) the 28th Aachen Colloquium Automobile and Engine Technology 2019
  31. Cracknell , R. , Bastaert , D. , Houillé , S. , Châtelain , J. et al. Testing of a New Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Concept on Market-Relevant Fuels the 28th Aachen Colloquium Automobile and Engine Technology 2019
  32. Neumann , N. , Freisinger , N. , and Vent , G. Experimental Investigation of Miller Cycle Combustion Technology with Water Injection Bargende , M. et al. 19. Internationales Stuttgarter Symposium, Proceedings https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-25939-6_50
  33. Cordier , M. , Lecompte , M. , Malbec , L.-M. , Reveille , B. et al. Water Injection to Improve Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Efficiency SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1139 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1139
  34. Khatri , J. , Denbratt , I. , Dahlander , P. , and Koopmans , L. Water Injection Benefits in a 3-Cylinder Downsized SI-Engine SAE Int. J. Advances & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 1 1 236 248 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0034
  35. Hebert , G. , Bazala , J. , Fischer , O. , Nothbaum , J. et al. Exhaust Gas Condensate as an Enabler for Self-Contained Water Injection Systems the 28th Aachen Colloquium Automobile and Engine Technology 2019
  36. Bunce , M. , Blaxill , H. , and Cooper , A. Development of both Active and Passive Pre-Chamber Jet Ignition Multi-Cylinder Demonstrator Engines the 28th Aachen Colloquium Automobile and Engine Technology 2019
  37. Brannys , S. , Gehrke , S. , Hoffmeyer , H. , Hentschel , L. et al. Maximum Efficiency Concept of a 1.5l TSI evo for Future Hybrid Powertrains the 28th Aachen Colloquium Automobile and Engine Technology 2019
  38. Körfer , T. Real World CO2 Reduction to Support Global GHG Reduction Strategies the 19th Hyundai-Kia International Powertrain Conference Korea 2019
  39. Weller , H. Future Powertrain Developments for Passenger Cars the 19th Hyundai-Kia International Powertrain Conference Korea 2019
  40. Dober , G. , Gomot , B. , Balland , J. , Gacon , D. et al. Delphi Technologies’ Innovative High Pressure GDi System Approach for SULEV30 & Post Euro6/China6 the 19th Hyundai-Kia International Powertrain Conference Korea 2019
  41. Kang , M. Global xEV Market Trend and Battery Technology for the Future the 19th Hyundai-Kia International Powertrain Conference Korea 2019
  42. Kang , M. Global xEV Market Trend and Battery Technology for the Future the 19th Hyundai-Kia International Powertrain Conference Korea 2019
  43. Kimura , E. Future of Sustainable Mobility: Honda’s Approach to Reduce GHG Emission the 31st International AVL conference ‘Engine & Environment’ Graz, Austria 2019
  44. IEA Global EV Outlook 2019 Paris IEA 2019 https://www.iea.org/reports/global-ev-outlook-2019
  45. Joshi , A. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/benefits-electric-hybrid-vehicles-depends-upstream-co2-ameya-joshi/
  46. https://www.emissionsanalytics.com/news/hybrids-are-better Dec. 20, 2019
  47. Senecal , P.K. and Leach , F. Diversity in Transportation: Why a Mix of Propulsion Technologies Is the Way Forward for the Future Fleet Results in Engineering 4 10060 2019
  48. Blumenröder , K. , Bennewitz , K. , Zillmer , M. , Mann , A. et al. The 48V Mild Hybrid Powertrain of the Volkswagen Golf: Design and Control the 40th International Vienna Motor Symposium Vienna 2019
  49. Alt , M. , Fuhrmann , N. , Böpple , O. , and Cloos , L.K. The Road to Mainstream Availability of Electrified Combustion Engines the 40th International Vienna Motor Symposium Vienna 2019
  50. Blaxill , H. High Power Battery Module: Analysis and Design of a High Power Module for 48 V Mild-hybrid Applications the Battery Show and Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology Expo Novi, MI 2019
  51. Graf , F. 48 Volt High Power - Turning the Page for Hybrids the 19th Hyundai-Kia International Powertrain Conference Korea 2019
  52. Weiss , M. , Zerfass , A. , and Helmers , E. Fully Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Cars - An Analysis of Learning Rates, User Costs, and Costs for Mitigating CO2 and Air Pollutant Emissions Journal of Cleaner Production 212 1478 1489 2019
  53. Wagner , R. The Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Overview (Co-Optima) the US Department of Energy Annual Merit Review Washington, DC 2019
  54. Gaspar , D. 2019
  55. Yokoo , N. , Nakata , K. , Chapman , B. , Joseph , D. et al. Effect of High RON Fuels on Engine Thermal Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0629 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0629
  56. Won , H.-W. , Bouet , A. , Manente , V. , Kermani , J. et al. Potential of GCI Technology - Higher Reactivity Gasoline Fuel to Reduce CO2 Footprint of a Euro 6d Compliant Passenger Vehicle the 40th International Vienna Motor Symmposiumm Vienna 2019
  57. Heneka , M. and Köppel , W. Comparative Evaluation of PtX Processes for Renewable Fuel Supply 19. Internationales Stuttgarter Symposium, Proceedings https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-25939-6_68
  58. Heuser , B. , Schnorbus , T. , Müther , M. , Lindemann , B. et al. Closed Carbon Cycle Mobility: Pathways towards a CO2 Neutral Mobility the FEV Diesel Powertrains 3.0 Conference Rouen, France July 2019
  59. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Reducing Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: Final Report Washington, DC The National Academies Press 2019 https://doi.org/10.17226/25542
  60. Zukouski , R. Development and Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient Class 8 Tractor & Trailer SuperTruck the US Department of Energy Annual Merit Review Washington, DC 2019
  61. Dickson , J. and Damon , K. Cummins/Peterbilt SuperTruck II the US Department of Energy Annual Merit Review Washington, DC 2019
  62. Amar , P. and Li , J. Volvo SuperTruck 2, Pathway to Cost-Effective Commercialized Freight Efficiency the US Department of Energy Annual Merit Review Washington, DC 2019
  63. Rotz , D. and Girbach , J. Improving Transportation Efficiency through Integrated Vehicle, Engine, and Powertrain Research - SuperTruckII the US Department of Energy Annual Merit Review Washington, DC 2018
  64. Major , J. Jr. Using the Opposed-Piston to Achieve Ultra-Low NOx and GHG Phase 2 Targets the 12th Integer Emissions Summit USA Indianapolis, IN 2019
  65. Lam , N. , Tunestal , P. , and Andersson , A. Simulation of System Brake Efficiency in a Double Compression-Expansion Engine-Concept (DCEE) Based on Experimental Combustion Data SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0073 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0073
  66. Burke , A. and Fulton , L. https://ucdavis.app.box.com/s/cfpoywahc2so21hogykiga6h8r9rppxe 2020
  67. Sharpe , B. Infrastructure for Zero-Emission Heavy Duty Trucks the 12th Emissions Summit USA Indianapolis, IN 2019
  68. Thewes , M. , Balazs , A. , Yadla , S.K. Walter , V. et al. Zero-Impact Combustion Engine the 28th Aachen Colloquium Automobile and Engine Technology 2019
  69. Choi , D. , Kang , Y. , Cheong , I. , Chung , Y. et al. The New Hyundai-Kia2.2L 4-Cylinder Diesel Engine - Smartstream D2.2 FR the 40th International Vienna Motor Symposium Vienna 2019
  70. Verdino , V. , Lavazza , P. , Rampone , D. , Garzarella , L. et al. The New General Motors 3.0 Liter Duramax Diesel Inline 6-cylinder Engine for the 2019 Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra the 40th International Vienna Motor Symposium Vienna 2019
  71. Krüger , M. , Bareiss , S. , Kufferath , A. , Naber , D. et al. Further Optimization of NOx Emissions under the EU 6d Regulation Bargende , M. et al. 19. Internationales Stuttgarter Symposium, Proceedings https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-25939-6_68
  72. Demuynck , J. , Favre , C. , Bosteels , D. , Randlshofer , G. et al. Integrated Diesel System Achieving Ultra-Low Urban and Motorway NOx Emissions on the Road the 40th International Vienna Motor Symposium Vienna 2019
  73. Christmann , R. Advanced Boosting Technologies for future emission legislations the 19th Hyundai-Kia International Powertrain Conference Korea 2019
  74. Lindemann , B. , Schönen , M. , Schaub , J. , Robb , L. et al. White Eco Diesel Powertrain with Pre-Turbine Exhaust Aftertreatment and Mild-Hybrid Concept for Lowest NOx Emissions under Urban Driving Conditions the FEV Diesel Powertrains 3.0 Conference Rouen, France July 2019
  75. Scassa , M. , George , S. , Nencioni , M. , Chen , S.K. et al. Dynamic Skip Fire Applied to a Diesel Engine for Improved Fuel Consumption and Emissions SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0549 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0549
  76. Tennison , P. A Systems Viewpoint and Challenges to Meeting Ultra-Low NOx the ERC Symposium Madison, WI 2019
  77. http://www.meca.org/resources/MECA_MY_2024_HD_Low_NOx_Report_061019.pdf
  78. U.S. EPA https://www.epa.gov/compliance-and-fuel-economydata/annual-certification-data-vehicles-engines-and-equipment
  79. Sharp , C. CARB Low NOX Development and Demonstration Programs at SwRI Progress Update the SAE WCX World Congress Detroit, MI 2019
  80. Sharp , C. Update on Heavy-Duty Low NOX Demonstration Programs at SwRI CARB HD Low NOx Workshop 2019 https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/our-work/programs/heavy-duty-low-nox/heavy-duty-low-nox-meetings-workshops
  81. Stephenson , P. Key Considerations for Feasible Low NOx Aftertreatment the ERC Symposium Madison, WI 2019
  82. Roberts , C. Low NOx Program Update Stage 1b, Stage 2 Stage 3 the 12th Emissions Summit USA Indianapolis, IN 2019
  83. Singh , N. , Adelman , B. , Malagari , S. , and Hickey , K. Ultra-Low NOx Emission Prediction for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications Using a Map-Based Approach SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0987 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0987
  84. Harris , T.M. and Gardner , T. Modeling of Aftertreatment Technologies to Meet a Future HD Low-NOx Standard SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0043 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0043
  85. Harris , T.M. , Mc Pherson , K. , Rezaei , R. , Kovacs , D. et al. Modeling of Close-Coupled SCR Concepts to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements for Heavy-Duty Engines SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0984 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0984
  86. Carlson , S. , Ortiz-Soto , E. , Chen , K. , and Younkins , M. Advances in Dynamic Skip Fire: mDSF and dDSF the 28th Aachen Colloquium Automobile and Engine Technology 2019
  87. Li , C. , Han , Y. , Jiang , Y. , Yang , J. et al. Emissions from Advanced Ultra-Low-NOx Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0751 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0751
  88. Johnson , K. Advanced Low NOx Natural Gas Engines: A Review the 29th CRC Real World Emissions Workshop California 2019
  89. Regner , G. OP Engines: Have Your Cake and Eat It Too, Ultra-Low NOx without the CO2 the ERC Symposium Madison, WI 2019
  90. Patil , S. , Sahasrabudhe , A. , Youngren , D. , Redon , F. et al. Cold-Start WHTC and WHSC Testing Results on Multi-Cylinder Opposed-Piston Engine Demonstrating Low CO2 Emissions while Meeting BS-VI Emissions and Enabling Aftertreatment Downsizing SAE Int. J. Adv. & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 1 1 23 37 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-26-0029
  91. Andersson , A. Opportunities for Extensive Integration of Aftertreatment and Engine Systems the ERC Symposium Madison, WI 2019
  92. Muric , K. , Tunestal , P. , Andersson , A. , and Andersson , L. Thermal Reduction of NOx in a Double Compression Expansion Engine by Injection of AAS 25 and AUS 32 in the Exhaust Gases SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0045 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0045
  93. Recker , A. Fuel Contaminants, Effects on Aftertreatment, and Their Limits on NOx Stringency and Extended Useful Life the ERC Symposium Madison, WI 2019
  94. Kim , P.S. , Kim , Y.J. , and Kim , C. Development of Ultra-Stable Cu-SCR Aftertreatment System for Advanced Lean NOx Control SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0743 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0743
  95. Partridge , W.P. , Pihl , J.A. , Joshi , S. , Currier , N. et al. NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines the 2019 DOE Annual Merit Review Washington, DC 2019
  96. Hartley , R. , Henry , C. , Eakle , S. , and Tonzetich , Z. Deposit Reduction in SCR Aftertreatment Systems by Addition of Ti-Based Coordination Complex to UWS SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0313 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0313
  97. Wilson , J. , Hargrave , G. , and Capper , M. ACCT Low Temperature Ammonia Delivery Using AdBlue™ the Integer Emissions Summit & AdBlue Forum Europe 2019
  98. Okada , Y. , Hirabayashi , H. , Sato , S. , and Inoue , H. Study on Improvement of NOx Reduction Performance at Low Temperature Using Urea Reforming Technology in Urea SCR System SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0317 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0317
  99. Larsson , P. , Ravenhill , P. , and Tunestal , P. NOx-Conversion Comparison of a SCR-Catalyst Using a Novel Biomimetic Effervescent Injector on a Heavy-Duty Engine SAE Int. J. Advances & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 1 1 278 283 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0047
  100. Rappe , K.G. , Goffe , R. , Gerty , M. , Peng , B. et al. Development and Optimization of Multi-Functional SCR-DPF Aftertreatment for Heavy-Duty NOx and Soot Emission Reduction the 2019 DOE Annual Merit Review Washington, DC 2019
  101. Robb , L. , Ghetti , S. , Schönen , M. , and Brückner , E. SCR on Filter Technology for Off-Highway Applications: Challenges and Solutions for DPF Control the 28th Aachen Colloquium Automobile and Engine Technology 2019
  102. Hruby , E. , Huang , S. , Duddukuri , R. , and Dou , D. NOx Performance Degradation of Aftertreatment Architectures Containing DOC with SCR on Filter or Uncatalyzed DPF Downstream of DEF Injection SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0740 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0740
  103. Szanyi , J. , Khivantsev , K. , Gao , F. , Kovarik , L. et al. CLEERS Passive NOx Adsorber (PNA) the US Department of Energy Annual Merit Review Washington, DC 2019
  104. Crocker , M. Development of Passive HC/NOx Trap Catalysts for Low Temperature Gasoline Applications the US Department of Energy Annual Merit Review Washington, DC 2019
  105. Toops , T.J. Low-Temperature Emission Control to Enable Fuel-Efficient Engine Commercialization the 2019 DOE Annual Merit Review Washington, DC 2019
  106. Harold , M. , Grabow , L. , Epling , W. , Henry , C. et al. Design and Optimization of Structured Multi-Functional Trapping Catalysts for Conversion of Hydrocarbons and NOx from Diesel and Advanced Combustion Engines the 2019 DOE Annual Merit Review Washington, DC 2019
  107. Sethuraman , S. , Sitamraju , S. , Lopez-De Jesus , Y.M. , and Markatou , P. Experimental and Computational Study of DOC on CSF for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0586 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0586
  108. Fierz , M. and Rüggeberg , T. In-Use Particle Filter Inspection with Simple Electrical Particle Detectors Proc. 22nd ETH-Conference on Combustion Generated Nanoparticles Zurich, Switzerland 2018 http://nanoparticles.ch/archive/2018_Fierz_PR.pdf
  109. Cooper , J.D. , Gladden , L.F. , Sederman , A.J. , and York , A.P. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Internal and External Hydrodynamics in Wall-flow Particulate Filters SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-2286 2019
  110. Wang , Y. , Obuchi , Y. , Zhang , J. , Tracy , I. et al. Experiments and Analyses on Stability/Mid-Channel Collapse of Ash-Deposit Wall Layers and Pre-Mature Clogging of Diesel Particulate Filters SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0972 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0972
  111. Wang , Y. and Wong , V. Quantitative Analysis of Ash Density and Ash Distribution inside DPF Honeycomb Channels Based on X-ray Computed Tomography SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0979 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0979
  112. Mueller , C.J. An Introduction to Ducted Fuel Injection the SAE High Efficiency IC Engine Symposium Detroit, MI 2019
  113. Svensson , K. and Martin , G. Ducted Fuel Injection: Effects of Stand-Off Distance and Duct Length on Soot Reduction SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0545 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0545
  114. Liu , C. , Chen , R. , Sera , F. , Vicedo-Cabrera , A.M. et al. Ambient Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in 652 Cities N Engl J Med 381 705 715 2019 10.1056/NEJMoa1817364
  115. Ohlwein , S. , Kappeler , R. , Joss , M.K. , Künzli , N. et al. Health Effects of Ultrafine Particles: A Systematic Literature Review Update of Epidemiological Evidence International Journal of Public Health 64 547 559 2019
  116. Scott , W. , Toyib , O. , Tanya , C. , Eric , L. et al. Within-City Spatial Variations in Ambient Ultrafine Particle Concentrations and Incident Brain Tumors in Adults Epidemiology 2019
  117. Liu , X. , Szente , J. , Pakko , J. , Lambert , C. et al. Using Artificial Ash to Improve GPF Performance at Zero Mileage SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0974 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0974
  118. Xia , W. , Yuan , X. , Yang , D. , Zheng , Y. et al. Design of Catalyzed Gasoline Particulate Filter (cGPF) and Investigation of Its Durability Performance Using Accelerated Engine Aging SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0970 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0970
  119. Sterlepper , S. , Claßen , J. , Pischinger , S. , Schernus , C. et al. Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime SAE Technical Paper 2019-24-0156 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-24-0156
  120. Feng , X. , Liu , H. , Li , W. , Lu , Z. et al. On-Vehicle Fuel Cut Testing for Gasoline Particulate Filter Applications SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0968 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0968
  121. Schönhaber , J. Improved Coated Gasoline Particulate Filters for Close Coupled and Underfloor Applications the SAE WCX World Congress Detroit, MI 2019
  122. Yang , Z. , Ge , Y. , Thomas , D. , Wang , X. et al. Real Driving Particle Number (PN) Emissions from China-6 Compliant PFI and GDI Hybrid Electrical Vehicles Atmospheric Environment 199 70 79 2019
  123. Thomas , D. , Li , H. , Ropkins , K. , Tomlin , A. et al. Tailpipe Particle Number Emissions and Size Distributions from Hybrid Cars the VIII International Congress on Combustion Engines Krakow 2019
  124. Easter , J.E. , Fiano , A. , Bohac , S. , Premchand , K. et al. Evaluation of Low Mileage GPF Filtration and Regeneration as Influenced by Soot Morphology, Reactivity, and GPF Loading SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0975 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0975
  125. Bock , N. , Jeon , J. , Kittelson , D. , and Northrop , W. Effects of Fuel Properties on Particle Number and Particle Mass Emissions from Lean and Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operation SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1183 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1183
  126. Fanick , R. , Kroll , S. , Swarts , A. , and Quarderer , S. Effects of Dual Port Injection and Direct-Injection Technology on Combustion Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0999 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0999
  127. Min , B. , Hwang , K. , Choi , H. , Park , H. et al. The New Hyundai-Kia’s Smartstream 1.5 L Turbo GDI Engine the 28th Aachen Colloquium Automobile and Engine Technology 2019
  128. Piock , W. , Hoffmann , G. , Spakowski , J.G. , Dober , G. et al. Delphi Technologies Next Generation GDi-System - Improved Emissions and Efficiency with Higher Pressure the 40th International Vienna Motor Symposium Vienna 2019
  129. Morén , M. , Burenius , R. , Rengmyr , S. , Dahl , D. et al. The New Volvo Mild Hybrid Engine Architecture the 28th Aachen Colloquium Automobile and Engine Technology 2019
  130. Giechaskiel , B. , Joshi , A. , Ntziachristos , L. , and Dilara , P. European Regulatory Framework and Particulate Matter Emissions of Gasoline Light-Duty Vehicles: A Review Catalysts 9 586 2019 10.3390/catal9070586
  131. https://pems4nano.eu/ http://www.downtoten.com/ http://sureal-23.cperi.certh.gr/
  132. Andersson , J. , Mamakos , A. , Klug , A. , Bergmann , A. et al. Update on Sub-23 nm Exhaust Particle Number Emissions Using the DownToTen Sampling and Measurement Systems the 23rd ETH-Conference on Combustion Generated Nanoparticles Zurich, Switzerland 2019
  133. Zinola , S. , Leblanc , M. , Rouleau , L. , Dunand , X. et al. Measurement of sub-23 nm Particles Emitted by Gasoline Direct Injection Engine with New Advanced Instrumentation SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-2195 2019
  134. Suarez-Bertoa , R. , Lähde , T. , Pavlovic , J. , Valverde , V. et al. Laboratory and On-Road Evaluation of a GPF-Equipped Gasoline Vehicle Catalysts 9 678 2019 10.3390/catal9080678
  135. Araji , F. and Stokes , J. Evaluation of Emissions from Light Duty Trucks with and without the Use of a Gasoline Particulate Filter SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0971 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0971
  136. Schmitz , T. Light Duty Gasoline Catalyst Development for “Euro 7” Type Legislation the 19th Hyundai-Kia International Powertrain Conference Korea 2019
  137. Choi , M. , Song , J. , Lee , E. , Ma , S. et al. The Development of a NOx Reduction System during the Fuel Cut Period for Gasoline Vehicles SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1292 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1292
  138. Kawaguchi , B. , Umemoto , K. , Misawa , S. , Hirooka , S. et al. ICE Vehicle Challenge toward Zero Emissions: Future Technology Harmonization in Electrified Powertrain System SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-2217 2019
  139. Parks , J. , Prikhodko , V.Y. , Pihl , J.A. , Thomas , C. et al. Passive Selective Catalytic Reduction for Lean Gasoline Engine Emission Control the ERC Symposium Madison, WI 2019
  140. Jung , C. and Kim , C.H. Advanced Urealess NH3-SCR System for Future Lean Burn Gasoline Aftertreatment the 19th Hyundai-Kia International Powertrain Conference Korea 2019
  141. Osborne , R. , Lane , A. , Turner , N. , McWilliam , L. et al. A New-Generation Lean Gasoline Engine for Reduced CO2 in an Electrified World the 40th International Vienna Motor Symposium Vienna 2019
  142. Harold , M. , Grabow , L. , Golden , S. , Epling , W. et al. Reduced Precious Metal Catalysts for Methane and NOx Emission Control of Natural Gas Vehicles the US Department of Energy Annual Merit Review Washington, DC 2019
  143. Cui , Y. , Gao , F. , Holladay , J. , Rappe , K. et al. Low-Temperature Oxidation the US Department of Energy Annual Merit Review Washington, DC 2019

Cited By