Measuring the Sound Power of a Reference Source using Sound Intensity
Published May 19, 2009 by SAE International in United States
Annotation of this paper is available
Sound intensity is the time average of sound-power flow per unit area in watts/m2. It is generally measured using sound pressure at two closely-spaced microphones. It is commonly believed that it is not possible to measure sound intensity in a reverberation room because multiple reflections in the room create a diffuse pressure field which makes such measurements inaccurate. However there has to be a net flow of sound power in the room from speakers (or other sources) which then passes out through the walls, ceiling and floor. Hence net sound power flow (sound intensity) should be measurable. In a previous paper * it was shown that it is possible to measure the sound power of a reference source accurately in three different reverberation rooms using sound-intensity measurement. Accurate measurements were also made in other work spaces. In this paper the sound-intensity method is compared with the method used by the manufacturer to calibrate a reference source. The calibration procedure uses the far field approximation for intensity in a semi-anechoic room. Results for the sound-intensity method in different work areas were found to be consistently less, by a few percent, than the manufacturer's calibrated value. Possible reasons for this are considered. It is suggested that manufacturers should use sound intensity measurement to calibrate reference sources instead of the far field approximation.
- HicklingR and LeeP., “Determining sound power in reverberation rooms and other indoor work spaces using vector sound-intensity measurement”, pages”, 483-488, Proceedings NOISE-CON 1997.
- FahyF. J., “Sound Intensity”, page. 73, E&F Spon, An imprint of Chapman and Hall, 1995.
- Reference 2, pages 170-171.
- HicklingR., “Decibels and octaves, who needs them?” Journal of Sound and_Vibration, 291, pages 1202-1207, 2006.
- KinslerL. E.et al, “Fundamentals of Acoustics”, Eq. (5.41), page 111, Third Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 1982.
- IngardU. and LambG. L, “Effect of a reflecting plane on the power output of sound sources”, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., pages 743-744, vol. 29, No. 6, 1957.
- HicklingR., LeeP. and WeiW “Investigation of Integration Accuracy of Sound-Power Measurement using an Automated Sound-Intensity System”, pages 125-140, vol. 50(2), Applied Acoustics, 1997.
- HicklingR. et al, “Determining Sound Power for Automotive Applications”, Paper # 972037, SAE Noise and Vibration Conference 1997.
- HicklingR., BolenL. and SchumacherR. F,: “Indoor System for Efficient Measurement of the Sound Power of Light Vehicles and for Noise-Control Diagnostics,” Transactions, Society of Automotive Engineers, Paper No. 891145, 1989.
- WeiW, HicklingR, and LeeP., “Gated sound-power measurement using sound intensity,” Journal of. Noise Control Engineering, pages. 13-19, Aug.1992