This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
The Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Stretched, Freely Propagating, Premixed, Laminar Methane-Air Flame
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2006 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Flame stretch arises due to strain and change in flame curvature and is extremely important in spark ignition (SI) engine combustion. It can significantly alter the flame speed and hence, the burning duration. This, in turn, can have serious influence on engine performance and exhaust emission. A good understanding of stretch effect can thus lead to improved fuel efficiency, reduced cyclic variations, and better emission control for SI engines. In this study, we analyzed initial temperature and pressure effects on the stretched flame speed of a laminar, premixed, freely propagating, spherical methane-air flame in accordance with the Markstein theory, which postulates a linear relationship between stretched and unstretched flame speed. The unstretched flame speed was computed using CHEMKIN GUI 4.0.1 with GRI Mech 3.0 reaction mechanism. Analytical expressions relating stretched and unstretched flame speed were employed to derive the stretched flame speed. Fuel/air equivalence ratio was varied from 0.6 to 1.4, while initial temperature and pressure were altered from 300 to 500 K and 1 to 3 atm, respectively. It is observed that in this particular type of flame, stretch always decreases the flame speed. Further, the stretch effect is minimal near the stoichiometric composition and is enhanced for rich and lean mixtures, by around 10 times with respect to the stoichiometric mixture under atmospheric conditions. The stretch effect also decreases with increase in temperature and/or pressure, over the range of conditions considered.
CitationDe, A., Ting, D., and Checkel, M., "The Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Stretched, Freely Propagating, Premixed, Laminar Methane-Air Flame," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-0494, 2006, https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-0494.
SI Combustion and Direct Injection SI Engine Technology
Number: SP-2016 ; Published: 2006-04-03
Number: SP-2016 ; Published: 2006-04-03
- Andrews G. E., Bradley D., “Determination of burning velocity: a critical review”, Combustion and Flame, 18, p 133-153, 1972.
- Bechtold J. K., Matalon M., “The dependence of Markstein length on stoichiometry”, Combustion and Flame, 127, p 1906-1913, 2001.
- Beck N. J., “Natural gas - a rational approach to clean air”, SAE Paper 902228, 1990.
- Bradley D., Gaskell P. H., Gu X. J., “Burning velocities, Markstein lengths, and flame quenching for spherical methane-air flames: a computational study”, Combustion and Flame, 104, p 176-198, 1996.
- Davis S. G., Quinard J., Searby G., “Determination of Markstein numbers in counterflow premixed flames”, Combustion and Flame, 130, p 112-122, 2002.
- Egolfopoulos F. N., Cho P., Law C. K., “Laminar flame speeds of methane-air mixtures under reduced and elevated pressures”, Combustion and Flame, 76, p 375-391, 1989.
- Gatowski J., Heywood J. B. and Deleplace C., “Flames photographs in a spark ignition engine”, Combustion and Flame, 56, p 71-81, 1984.
- Gu X. J., Haq M. Z., Lawes M., Woolley R., “Laminar burning velocity and Markstein lengths of methane-air mixtures”, Combustion and Flame, 121, p 41-58, 2000.
- Heywood J. B., Internal Combustion Engine Fundamental, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1988.
- Im H. G., Chen J. H., “Effects of flow transients on the burning velocity of hydrogen-air premixed flames”, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 28, p 1833-1840, 2000.
- Kalghatgi G. T., “Early flame development in a spark ignition engine”, Combustion and Flame, 60, p 299-308, 1985.
- Karlovitz B., Denniston D. W., Knapschaefer D. H., Wells F. E., “Studies on turbulent flames”, Fourth International Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, p 613-620, 1953.
- Karpov V. P., Lipatnikov L. N., Wolanski P., “Finding of Markstein number using the measurements of expanding spherical laminar flames”, Combustion and Flame, 109, p 436-448, 1997
- Kee R. J. et al., CHEMKIN Kinetics, Release 4.0.1, Reaction Design Inc., San Diego, CA, USA, 2004.
- Kuo K. K., Principles of Combustion, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2nd edition, 2005.
- Kwon S., Tseng L. K., Faeth G.M., “Laminar burning velocities and transitions to unstable flames in H2/O2/N2 and C3H8/O2/N2 mixtures”, Combustion and Flame, 90, p 230-246, 1992.
- Law C. K., “Dynamics of stretched flames”, The Twenty Second International Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, p 1381-1402, 1988.
- Lewis B., von Elbe G., Combustion, flames and explosion of gases, Second Edition, Academic Press Inc., 1961.
- Liao S. Y., Jiang D. M., Cheng Q., “Determination of laminar burning velocities for natural gas”, Fuel, 83, p 1247-1250, 2004.
- Markstein G. H., Non-steady fame propagation, Pergamon Press, p 22, 1964.
- Mills A. F., Basic Heat and Mass Transfer, Richard D. Irwin Inc., 1995.
- Smith G. et al., GRI-Mech 3.0, http://www.me.berkeley.edu/gri_mech/, 2004.
- Strehlow R. A., Savage L. D., “The concept of flame stretch (Non strictly one dimensional premixed laminar flame propagation modes)”, Combustion and Flame, 31, p 209-211, 1978.
- Taylor S. C., Burning Velocity and the Influence of Flame Stretch, Ph.D Thesis, University of Leeds, Leeds, 1991.
- Ting D. S-K., Checkel M. D., Haley R., Smy P. R., “Early flame acceleration measurements in a turbulent spark-ignited mixture”, SAE Paper 940687, 1994.
- Tseng L. K., Ismail M. A., Faeth G. M., “Laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers of hydrocarbon/air flames”, Combustion and Flame, 95, p 410-426, 1993.
- Turns S. R., An Introduction to Combustion: Concepts and Applications, McGraw-Hill, 2nd edition, 2000.
- van Maaren A., One-step chemical reaction parameters for premixed laminar flames, Ph.D Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology,1994.
- van Maaren A., Thung D. S., De Goey L. P. H., “Measurement of flame temperature and adiabatic burning velocity of methane/air mixtures”, Combustion Science and Technology, 96, p 327-344, 1994.
- von Elbe G., Lewis B., “Free-radical reactions in glow and explosion of carbon monoxide-oxygen mixtures”, Combustion and Flame, 63, p 135-150, 1986.
- Wu C. K., Law C. K., “On the determination of Laminar flame Speeds from stretched flames”, Twentieth International Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, p 1941-1949, 1984.
- Yamaoka I., Tsuji H., “Extinction of near-stoichiometric flames diluted with nitrogen in a stagnation flow”, Twenty-Second International Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, p 1565-1572, 1988.