Quasi-Dimensional Multi-Zone Combustion Diagnostic Tool for SI Engines with Novel NOx and CO Emissions Models

WCX SAE World Congress Experience
Authors Abstract
In this work a quasi-dimensional multi-zone combustion diagnostic tool for homogeneous charge Spark Ignition (SI) engines is analytically developed for the evaluation of heat release, flame propagation, combustion velocities as well as engine-out NOx and CO emissions, based on in-cylinder pressure data analysis. The tool can be used to assess the effects of fuel, design and operating parameters on the SI engine combustion and NOx and CO emissions formation processes.
Certain novel features are included in the presently developed combustion diagnostic tool. Firstly, combustion chambers of any shape and spark plug position can be considered due to an advanced model for the calculation of the geometric interaction between a spherically expanding flame and a general combustion chamber geometry. Also, the temperature stratification of the burned gas developed during the combustion phase, which has to be captured for the theoretically realistic estimation of the in-cylinder formation of pollutant emissions, is taken into account by a multi-zone thermodynamic treatment. According to this, multiple spherically allocated burned zones are sequentially generated at specified (user-defined) crank angle intervals, forming overlapping shells. Moreover, complex chemical equilibrium compositions are computed, which can include any user-defined mixture of species in the combustion products, using an advanced modular method based on the minimization of Gibbs energy. Furthermore, NOx and CO engine-out emissions are calculated based on novel in-cylinder formation models presented by the authors in the past. Specifically, NOx emissions are evaluated by a global algebraic NOx emissions formation model, accounting for both thermal and N2O pathway NO formation, based on the calculation of the characteristic timescales of the relevant NO formation mechanisms. CO emissions are assessed using a new kinetics-based model, consisting of a single Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) that can be analytically integrated. The CO emissions model is derived considering the dynamics of a representative pool of active radicals in post-flame gases and explicitly describes the CO oxidation quenching process.
The combustion diagnostic tool is applied to a lean burn gas engine at various engine speeds under full load conditions and constant lambda value. Various combustion and NOx and CO emissions related results are presented and discussed to illustrate the capabilities of the tool for combustion diagnosis, while at the same time calculated engine-out NOx and CO emissions are found to be in satisfactory agreement with measured ones.
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Michos, K., and Bikas, G., "Quasi-Dimensional Multi-Zone Combustion Diagnostic Tool for SI Engines with Novel NOx and CO Emissions Models," Advances and Current Practices in Mobility 2(4):1818-1848, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-0289.
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Apr 14, 2020
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Journal Article