Comparison of Experimental PIV Data and CFD Simulations for Flow in a Diesel Particulate Filter Inlet Diffuser

SAE 2011 World Congress & Exhibition
Authors Abstract
Flow maldistribution of the exhaust gas entering a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) can cause uneven soot distribution during loading and excessive temperature gradients during the regeneration phase. Minimizing the magnitude of this maldistribution is therefore an important consideration in the design of the inlet pipe and diffuser, particularly in situations where packaging constraints dictate bends in the inlet pipe close to the filter, or a sharp diffuser angle. This paper describes the use of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to validate a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model of the flow within the inlet diffuser of a DPF so that CFD can be used with confidence as a tool to minimize this flow maldistribution.
PIV is used to study the flow of gas into a DPF over a range of steady state flow conditions. The distribution of flow approaching the front face of the substrate was of particular interest to this study. Optically clear diffusing cones were designed and placed between pipe and substrate to allow PIV analysis to take place. Stereoscopic PIV was used to eliminate any error produced by the optical aberrations caused by looking through the curved wall of the inlet cone.
In parallel to the experiments, numerical analysis was carried out using a CFD program with an incorporated DPF model. Boundary conditions for the CFD simulations were taken from the experimental data, allowing an experimental validation of the numerical results. The CFD model incorporated a DPF model, the cement layers seen in segmented filters and the intumescent matting that is commonly used to pack the filter into a metal casing. The mesh contained approximately 580,000 cells and used the realizable k-ε turbulence model. The CFD simulation predicted both pressure drop across the DPF and the velocity field within the cone and at the DPF face with reasonable accuracy, providing confidence in the use the CFD in future work to design new, more efficient cones.
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Turner, C., Thornhill, D., McCullough, G., and Patel, S., "Comparison of Experimental PIV Data and CFD Simulations for Flow in a Diesel Particulate Filter Inlet Diffuser," SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1):1556-1570, 2011,
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Apr 12, 2011
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Journal Article