Combustion Analysis of Active Pre-Chamber Design for Ultra-Lean Engine Operation

Authors Abstract
In this article, the effects of mixture dilution using EGR or excessive air on adiabatic flame temperature, laminar flame speed, and minimum ignition energy are studied to illustrate the fundamental benefits of lean combustion. An ignition system developing a new active pre-chamber (APC) design was assessed, aimed at improving the indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) of a 1.5 L four-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. The engine combustion process was simulated with the SAGE detailed chemistry model within the CONVERGE CFD tool, assuming the primary reference fuel (PRF) to be a volumetric mixture of 93% iso-octane and 7% n-heptane. The effects of design parameters, such as APC volume, nozzle diameter, and nozzle orientations, on ITE were studied. It was found that the ignition jet velocity from the pre-chamber to the main chamber had a significant impact on the boundary heat losses and combustion phasing. The simulation showed that, under 16.46 compression ratio (CR) and 8.93 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) condition, it is possible to achieve the peak ITE of 49.85% with λ = 2.23.
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Peethambaram, M., Zhou, Q., Waters, B., Pendlebury, K. et al., "Combustion Analysis of Active Pre-Chamber Design for Ultra-Lean Engine Operation,"
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Apr 27
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Journal Article