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Connected Vehicles – Ecosystem for Services in Car

Automotive Software-Prabha Baragur Venkataram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2447
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
This paper outlines the different aspects of the Connected Vehicle concept. The blocks required to implement a Connected Vehicle infrastructure is also discussed in detail. Two main types of short-range wireless communication are discussed in Connected Vehicles context namely Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V), and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication. An overview of the evolution of the Connected Vehicle and its operational aspects are presented together with its application. The impacts and potential operational benefits of the Connected Vehicle are discussed. The various challenges to architect non functional requirements in the case of Connected Vehicle technology are identified and discussed.

Programming Light on a Chip

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34606
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Microwave signals are ubiquitous in wireless communications but interact too weakly with photons. A technique was developed to fabricate high-performance optical microstructures using lithium niobate, a material with powerful electro-optic properties. The new integrated photonics platform can store light and electrically control its frequency (or color) in an integrated circuit. The platform draws inspiration from atomic systems and could have a wide range of applications including photonic quantum information processing, optical signal processing, and microwave photonics.


Monitor Babies in the NICU Without Wires

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34581
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

An interdisciplinary Northwestern University team has developed a pair of soft, flexible wireless sensors that replace the tangle of wire-based sensors that currently monitor babies in hospitals’ neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and pose a barrier to parent-baby cuddling and physical bonding. The lead researcher was John A. Rogers, a bioelectronics pioneer, who led the technology development. The team recently completed a series of first human studies on premature babies at Prentice Women’s Hospital and Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago. The researchers concluded that the wireless sensors provided data as precise and accurate as that from traditional monitoring systems. The wireless patches also are gentler on a newborn’s fragile skin and allow for more skin-to-skin contact with the parent. Existing sensors must be attached with adhesives that can scar and blister premature newborns’ skin. The study, involved materials scientists, engineers, dermatologists, and pediatricians. It includes initial data from more than 20 babies who wore the wireless sensors alongside traditional monitoring systems, so the researchers could do a side-by-side, quantitative comparison. Since then, the team has conducted successful tests with more than 70 babies in the NICU.


JAUS / SDP Transport Specification

AS-4JAUS Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5669A
  • Current
Published 2019-04-22 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies a data communications layer for the transport of messages defined by the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS) or other Software Defined Protocols (SDP). This Transport Specification defines the formats and protocols used for communication between compliant entities for all supported link-layer protocols and media. Although JAUS is the SDP used as the example implemented throughout this document, AS5669 can be used for any SDP that meets the required capabilities. A Software Defined Protocol is defined as an application data interface for communicating between software elements. The SDP is agnostic of the underlying communications protocol and in fact communicates in much the same manner regardless if the communicating entities are collocated in the same memory space or separated by a satellite link.
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Comparative Analysis of Power Pad for Wireless Charging of Electric Vehicles

Aligarh Muslim University-Aqueel Ahmad, Mohammad Saad Alam
Florida International University-Ahmed Mohamed
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Wireless charging of Electric Vehicle adhere the mutual induction to transmit power to the battery and eliminates need of wire and physical connection. Power pad design, frequency of power transfer, distance between transfer coils and alignment of transfer coils are critical challenges of EV wireless charging. Power pad design entails optimization of coil shape and size, core shape, and material of coil and core along with economic analysis. The manuscript compares the already available coil shapes, with the introduction of ferrite core across the coils to design an extremely efficient power pad for the wireless charging of EV. A 3D finite element method (FEA) is being used for analysis, due to the unconventional distribution of the flux. Only three types of coils, D, DD, and DDQ, are taken to analyze the effect of magnetic ferrite core. The comparison is made based on simulation results, magnetic flux pattern as well as data imported from the results. Ansys 3D Maxwell simulation software is used to simulate the magnetic pattern of the power pad coils. Finally, the results…
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Antenna Design Methodology for Remote Keyless Entry: The Effects of the Human Body and Vehicular Antenna Positions on Coverage

Altair Engineering-Dipen Kumar Das, Aseim Elfrgani
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In this era of technologies, Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) system has become an integral part of motor vehicles. Over the years, a lot of functionalities have been added to RKE systems. To achieve functional communication between key-fob antennas and vehicular receiving antennas, it is necessary to analyze the impact of a human body as well as the receiving antenna placements on the vehicle’s body. Taking these variations into account during the antenna development phase becomes expensive and tedious since achieving an efficient design would require several iterations, testing, and modification, in the design. Hence, Computational Electromagnetic (CEM) techniques become a feasible solution to explore such scenarios and adopt necessary modifications as needed. This paper introduces a methodological process of designing RKE antennas using 3D CEM Simulation tool; namely Altair Feko. Moreover, the presented methodology includes an analysis of variations of remote keyless entry system’s radiation characteristics while placed in the vicinity of the human body. The effects of the vehicular receiving antenna position on the RKE system’s coverage are also investigated and analyzed. This paper…
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A Resonant Capacitive Coupling WPT-Based Method to Power and Monitor Seat Belt Buckle Switch Status in Removable and Interchangeable Seats

Ford Motor Co.-Mark Cuddihy
Solace Power Inc.-Brian Pottle
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we present an intelligent and wireless subsystem for powering and communicating with three sets of seat belt buckle sensors that are each installed on removable and interchangeable automobile seating. As automobile intelligence systems advance, a logical step is for the driver’s dashboard to display seat belt buckle indicators for rear seating in addition to the front seating. The problem encountered is that removable and interchangeable automobile seating outfitted with wired power and data links are inherently less reliable than rigidly fixed seating, as there is a risk of damage to the detachable power and data connectors throughout end-user seating removal/re-installation cycles. The present study tackles this issue through outfitting three removable and interchangeable rear seat assemblies with resonant capacitive coupling wireless power transfer as to power each rear seat across a variable gap between the interior paneling and that side of the seat closest to the interior paneling. A fundamental design challenge this system presented was the need to develop a rugged method to account for different sizes of seating, and hence…
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Improvement of the Resilience of a Cyber-Physical Remote Diagnostic Communication System against Cyber Attacks

Softing Automotive Electronics GmbH-Peter Subke
Softing North America Inc.-Muzafar Moshref
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the near future, vehicles will operate autonomously and communicate with their environment. This communication includes Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V), Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication, and comunication with cloud-based servers (V2C). To improve the resilience of remote diagnostic communication between a vehicle and external test equipment against cyberattacks, it is imperative to understand and analyze the functionality and vulnerability of each communication system component, including the wired and wireless communication channels.This paper serves as a continuation of the SAE Journal publication on measures to prevent unauthorized access to the in-vehicle E/E system [9], explains the components of a cyber-physical system (CPS) for remote diagnostic communication, analyzes their vulnerability against cyberattacks and explains measures to improve the resiliance.
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Energy Saving Glazing and Its Compatibility with Heating, Antenna and Wireless Communication

Vitro Automotive Glass-David Dai, Mukesh Rustagi, Peter Dishart
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Conductive heat reflecting automotive windows significantly attenuate RF communication signals. A number of methods are available to maintain electromagnetic compatibility and the function of these and other devices in the passenger compartment, while accruing the heat load reduction benefits of the coating. One of the methods is to integrate antennas on to the coated glazing and have glass antenna act as a communication interface between inside and outside of the vehicle. Another approach is to design a wideband or bandpass Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) window to facilitate wireless communication while preserving the thermal performance of the window. This paper provides detailed overview on coated antennas for vehicle communications, FSS window design for wideband and bandpass applications and coated antenna combined with de-ice and de-fogger functions with some designs and testing data.
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Evaluating Trajectory Privacy in Autonomous Vehicular Communications

Oakland Univerity-Abdulrahman Alzahrani
Oakland University-Abdelnasser Banihani, Huirong Fu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicles might one day be able to implement privacy preserving driving patterns which humans may find too difficult to implement. In order to measure the difference between location privacy achieved by humans versus location privacy achieved by autonomous vehicles, this paper measures privacy as trajectory anonymity, as opposed to single location privacy or continuous privacy. This paper evaluates how trajectory privacy for randomized driving patterns could be twice as effective for autonomous vehicles using diverted paths compared to Google Map API generated shortest paths. The result shows vehicles mobility patterns could impact trajectory and location privacy. Moreover, the results show that the proposed metric outperforms both K-anonymity and KDT-anonymity.
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