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Daytime visibility aspects under alternative use of headlamps

ARTEB-Carlos Alberto Leite de Moura
PRIME ONE-Paulo Victor S. Pingueiro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0072
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Daytime visibility represents one of the most important themes in automotive safety. Some accidents, especially frontal collisions, used to occur as a result of a bad recognition of vehicle presence. In order to keep vehicles more visible during the day, there is a luminous device called Daytime Running Lamp (DRL). Nowadays DRL is not mandatory in Brazil, but it will be in 2021 for new vehicles. As with any situation that involves technological transitions, some questions appear, among them: how to equalize the market, in terms of daytime visibility, considering newer and older vehicles together? How to improve visibility in older vehicles that were not designed with DRL? The answer maybe lies in the alternative usage of automotive headlamps. Among other facts, one luminous device for two functions can result in safety improvements without unexpected investments. Therefore, how can this technically be achieved? By CONTRAN 667, that has adopted North America references, including luminous devices according to FMVSS, it is possible to use a low beam or a high beam dimmed to a maximum 7000…
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The influence of A-pillar obscuration/location on driver visibility

General Motors-Alex Cardoso Santos, Adalberto Gerez, Antônio Pádua, Piero Genaro, Rei Silva, Sonia Ferreira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0062
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
During the early phase of vehicle development, one of the key design attributes to consider is visibility for the driver. Visibility is the ability to see one’s surrounding environment while they are driving. Therefore, it is one of the key requirements to be considered during the vehicle design.Certain vehicle characteristics such as the size of windshield and the design of the pillars influence the perception of visibility for the driver. One specific characteristic influencing satisfaction is A-pillar obscuration and location, which is the subject of this paper.The objective of this project is to analyze the relationship between the A-pillar obscuration/location with the driver satisfaction under real world driving conditions, based on research, statistical data analysis and dynamic clinics. Other influences, such as the position of the occupant in the seat was also studied and captured in this paper.
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Application Study of Blind Spot Monitoring System Realized by Monocular Camera with CNN Depth Cues Extraction Approach

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Jiangsu Chaoli Electric Co., Ltd., China-Chuyo Kaku
Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan-Yuxiang Guo, Itsuo Kumazawa
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-04-0016
Published 2019-12-17 by SAE International in United States
The image from monocular camera is processed to detect depth information of the obstacles viewed by the rearview cameras of vehicle door side. The depth information recognized from a single, two-dimensional image data can be used for the purpose of blind spot area detection. Blind spot detection is contributing to enhance the vehicle safety in scenarios such as lane-change and overtaking driving. In this article the depth cue information is inferred from the feature comparison between two image blocks selected within a single image. Convolutional neural network model trained by deep learning process with good enough accuracy is applied to distinguish if an obstacle is far or near for a specified threshold in the vehicle blind spot area. The application study results are demonstrated by the offline calculations with real traffic image data.
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Entry Level Connected Infotainment Unit with Smartphone and Vehicle Integration

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Soundharya N, Tarun Aggarwal, Ritesh Khandelwal, Satish Pandey, Satish Kumar Pandey, Himanshu Kumar Ojha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2434
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
As we transition towards Internet of Things (IoT) - humans are connected to each other & outside world through the smartphone.Customers tend to use smartphones for varied purposes ranging from communication to entertainment. However, the concern of distraction exists due to poor visibility & accessibility of the phone’s screen in driving condition.One of the repercussion of being connected to smartphone particularly in driving condition includes higher number of road accidents due to distraction. This paper explains one of the key initiatives taken by Maruti Suzuki India Limited to address the same. This is done by offering an entry level connected infotainment system which comprises of the following three components:(a) An entry-level infotainment with basic display & vehicle connectivity, (b) A Dock mounted on infotainment panel enabling safe usage of smartphone due to its position i.e. accessibly and visibility in driving condition, (c) A Driving App specifically designed for driving usage where one can access calling, messaging, navigation on the go with a vibrant UI & easy to use gestures.The infotainment unit is connected to vehicle’s…
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Telescopic Rear Wiper Arm with Cam and Roller Mechanism for Increased Wiping Area

Hyundai Motor India Engineering Pvt Ltd.-Venkata Aravind Masimukku, Karthik MSVS
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2407
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Visibility is a critical factor to avoid the accidents and incidents on road. Every year there are over 5 million car accidents reported in USA. Of these 23% are caused by the hazardous weather and poor visibility. Driving in poor visibility increases the potential for a serious crash. Over the last decade 15% of the accidents on road are due to poor visibility in bad weather conditions. This paper addresses the poor visibility through the rear windshield glass of a car.A vehicle is designed in a way to provide the maximum possible visibility. But due to the vehicle design constraints, the visibility through the rear glass is very less. This visibility reduces drastically in the extreme weather conditions like rain, snow, dust and fog. At present, wiper systems play an essential role in providing better visibility for the driver in bad weather. Even though there are other technological aids like cameras, sensors etc.., they come with a high cost and act as only passive visibility for the driver. These cannot give as much confidence to…
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Windshield Glare from Bus Interiors: Potential Impact on City Transit Drivers at Night

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

OSHTECH Incorporated, Canada-Peter Pityn, Sue Clouse-Jensen
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-02-0008
Published 2019-11-15 by SAE International in United States
Windshield glare at night is a safety concern for all drivers. Public transit bus drivers also face another concern about glare caused by interior lighting sources originally designed for passenger safety. The extent to which interior light reflections contribute to glare is unknown. Unique methods for measuring discomfort and disability glare during bus driving were developed. An initial simulation study measured windshield luminance inside of a New Flyer D40LF diesel bus parked in a controlled, artificial, totally darkened test environment. Findings indicated significant disability glare (from elevated luminance) in the drivers’ primary field of view due to interior reflections. Any reduction in contrast would result in less prominent glare if actual driving conditions differ. To assess this, levels of windshield glare were also measured with the bus parked on the roadside under the “background glow” of the urban environment. Findings reveal that under road conditions the extent of disability glare from interior reflections is much less, but not negligible, when contrast is reduced. The information gathered in these studies may be useful to manufacturers and…
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Windshield Defrosting Analysis: A Numerical and Experimental Approach

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd.-Chandan Kumar, Mohan Makana, Felix Regin, Amit Garg, Durga Prasad Pedamallu
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The outside visibility through the windshield and ORVM visibility through the side glasses are critical for safe driving. The frost deposition on the Windshield and side glasses in the cold climatic condition impairs the outside and ORVM visibility during driving and hence leads to an unsafe driving condition. In India, the regulation AIS-084 governs the defrosting standard. The defrosting performance evaluation by testing cannot be performed at concept stage when the vehicle prototype is not available. It also increases the cost of vehicle development due to increase in the number of prototype used for testing.This paper explains about the in-house developed CFD methodology to evaluate the windshield defrosting performance of the vehicle in the concept stage when no vehicle proto is available and cost of countermeasure for defrosting performance improvent is very less. This methodology is implemented for some of the existing models. The results of CFD simulations are compared to the experimental data using a correlation study and the correlation coefficient of numerical and experimental measurements were reported. CFD simulation was in good agreement…
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CONTI SUITS UP

Automotive Engineering: October 2019

Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP10_01
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

A team of young innovators aims to transform a critical piece of safety equipment - and create new business - through collaboration.

Few colors shock the human brain into attention more than high-visibility Yellow. “Hi-viz” as it's known in the safety-apparel industry, is an on-the-job requirement for first responders, road workers, tow-truck drivers, linesmen, loggers, couriers, coast guard deck crews - any all-weather vocation for which being seen in low-visibility situations can make the difference between life and death. Included are overnight package-delivery drivers who must sprint across busy city streets - at night, in the fog and rain - to deliver the goods.

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Numerical Investigation of Wiper Drawback

Dassault Systemes-Jonathan Jilesen
Exa Corporation-Tom Linden
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Windscreen wipers are an integral component of the windscreen cleaning systems of most vehicles, trains, cars, trucks, boats and some planes. Wipers are used to clear rain, snow, and dirt from the windscreen pushing the water from the wiped surface. Under certain conditions however, water which has been driven to the edge of the windscreen by the wiper can be drawn back into the driver’s field of view by aerodynamic forces introduced by the wiper motion. This is wiper drawback, an undesirable phenomenon as the water which is drawn back on to the windscreen can reduce driver’s vision and makes the wiper less effective.The phenomena of wiper drawback can be tested for in climatic tunnels using sprayer systems to wet the windscreen. However, these tests require a bespoke test property or prototype vehicle, which means that the tests are done fairly late in the development of the vehicle. Furthermore, these results do not provide significant insight into the mechanisms driving the wiper drawback.In order to better understand wiper drawback a numerical simulation is presented of…
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Nighttime Visibility in Varying Moonlight Conditions

4M Safety-Michael Kuzel
Kineticorp LLC-William Neale, James Marr, Nathan McKelvey
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
When the visibility of an object or person in the roadway from a driver’s perspective is an issue, the potential effect of moonlight is sometimes questioned. To assess this potential effect, methods typically used to quantify visibility were performed during conditions with no moon and with a full moon. In the full moon condition, measurements were collected from initial moon rise until the moon reached peak azimuth. Baseline ambient light measurements of illumination at the test surface were measured in both no moon and full moon scenarios. Additionally, a vehicle with activated low beam headlamps was positioned in the testing area and the change in illumination at two locations forward of the vehicle was recorded at thirty-minute intervals as the moon rose to the highest position in the sky. Also, two separate luminance readings were recorded during the test intervals, one location 75 feet in front and to the left of the vehicle, and another 150 feet forward of the vehicle. These luminance readings yielding the change in reflected light attributable to the moon. In…
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