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A Machine Learning based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for Lightweighting the Automotive Structures

Mahindra and Mahindra-Ranga Srinivas Gunti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2424
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The present work involves Machine Learning (ML) based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for lightweighting the automotive structures. The challenge in deployment of MMDO algorithms in solving real-world automotive structural design problems is the enormous time involved in solving full vehicle finite element models that involve large number of design variables and multiple performance constraints pertaining to vehicle dynamics, durability, crash and NVH domains. With the availability of powerful workstations and using the advanced Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools, it has become possible to generate huge sets of simulation data pertaining to multiple domains. In the present work, lightweigting of the vehicle structure is achieved, considered the vehicular hardpoint locations and the gages of the vehicle structures as the design variables and performance parameters pertaining to vehicle dynamics, structural durability, front-end intrusions during an IIHS offset impact test and the modal frequencies of few critical structural members as the constraint variables. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) based algorithms were used for developing the predictive models of various performance parameters. The predictive models were then used to…
 

Effect of variable payload on Vehicle dynamics of Passenger buses in Indian usage conditions

VE Commercial Vehicle-Abhishek pyasi
VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-ABHOY CHANDRA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2411
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A high impetus from Government on road infrastructure development, is giving a fillip to passenger CV space. This has resulted in making the passenger CV segment lucrative enough, thereby pulling in many operators in the business. The quality of road has immensely improved over a decade, as a result of which the average speed and hence the quantum of distance covered by passenger buses has increased significantly. People are preferring to travel in buses over trains, owing to at par ticket cost, high availability, reduced travel time and also improved level of comfort. Aligned to the market need and the trend, OEM's are offering buses with capable powertrains to cater the need of speed, reduced trip time as well as a lot of attention is also being paid to tune in the comfort level for long hauls. A big chunk of passenger travel is catered by the bus operators especially during major festivals in India. However, the passenger demand is not so consistent in this industry due to seasonality and hence is the operator earnings,…
 

Analysis of pressure variation in wheel using statistical methods

Abhishek Mandhana
College of Engineering Pune-Rajiv basavarajappa PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2450
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective: The Objective of the research is to detect drop in level of pressure in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from speed sensors. The research discusses the standard procedure of experimentation to obtain data which eventually used to produce results. This procedure is taken from principles Design of Experiments. Statistical tools are used to analyze and give determining factors for pressure variation. Methodology: To study idea, we made use of two-wheeler platform and collected data of wheel speed sensors on both wheels. The idea is when there is any change in tire pressure the radius of the wheel also changes and usually this relation is direct. Hence, change in tire pressure changes the angular velocity of the wheel. In this approach wheel speed sensors are used to measure the angular speed for standard and reduced pressure conditions. The data obtained from the wheel speed sensor is analyzed through statistical methods and different determining values are calculated. These determining parameters are compared to see the variations in the pressure. To obtain…
 

TORQUE VECTORING DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE

IIT MANDI-Narsa Tummuru
IIT Mandi-Ankit Joshi, Arpan Gupta, Aman soni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2485
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Abstract The electrification of conventional internal combustion engine vehicle is a need of today’s advanced world to reduce the dependency of the transportation sector on the oil and gases. It can be achieved by replacing the engine by an electric motor which is powerful enough to provide required torque. The important requirement for a vehicle to drive in the hilly region with steep corners is proper torque distribution on each wheel which is taken care by the differential system. When the friction between road and wheels are different from left to right, then the wheel with low friction contact will lose its traction on the road. These situations are unfavorable for driving a vehicle on off-road and extrema conditions like driving in muddy roads or on the ice. These problems can be overcome by providing individual power supply system to separate wheels. If the required torque can be provided to each wheel separately, then the problem can be overcome and the mechanical differential system can be avoided. The mechanical driveline is very bulky, which can…
 

Model Based Design of Chassis-Frame with MATLAB

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Rishabh Singh parihar, Gaurav Sharma, Nitinkumar patil, Yogendra Aniya
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2429
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In the current commercial vehicles market, ride-comfort and handling are crucial parameters for the customer and end user. There are various aspects which determine the vehicle behaviour. One of aspects is the structural rigidity of the vehicle, which has its own effect on vehicle dynamics. To meet the required stiffness of the main structural component of the vehicle i.e. chassis frame, FEA analysis has to be done in current methodology. The number of iterations have to be done to build an appropriate model with low weight, which can meet the design requirements. At first, conceptual design mock-up unit is to be developed then FEA (CAE) analysis to be done on it. If any design criteria are not met, then this cycle repeats again until it fulfils the required stiffness. Today, the direct stiffness procedure is the basic principle of almost every FEA software package. In this paper, computer code based on MATLAB software is provided and presented for the analysis of the chassis frame using the direct stiffness method. The code, models a structure of…
 

Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Saravanan Muthiah
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Divyanshu Joshi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2397
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Title Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation Authors Mr. Shubham Kedia, Dr. Divyanshu Joshi, Dr. Muthiah Saravanan Mahindra Research Valley, Mahindra & Mahindra, Chennai Objective Objective metrics for evaluation of major vehicle dynamics performance attributes i.e. ride, handling and steering are required to compare, validate and optimize dynamic behavior of vehicles. Some of these objective metrics are recommended and defined by ISO and SAE, which involve data processing, statistical analysis and complex mathematical operations on acquired data, through simulations or experimental testing. Due to the complexity of operations and volume of data, evaluation is often time consuming and tedious. Process automation using existing tools such as MS Excel, nCode, Siemens LMS, etc. includes several limitations and challenges, which make it cumbersome to implement. In the current work, a GUI based post-processing tool is developed for automated evaluation of ride, handling and steering performance. Methodology This work is about development of a centralized platform for quantification, visualization and comparison of ride, handling and steering performance metrics from testing and…
 

Design and Fabrication of CFRP wheel centre for FSAE Race-car

VIT-Sangeet Aggarwal, Renold Elsen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0117
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The work focuses on the design of a Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Wheel Centre targeting key parameters such as reduced un-sprung mass and lower rotational inertia in the (PRV 2017) Formula-style single seater race car developed for Formula Student Germany. The main issue that was reported by the vehicle dynamics team was to get a customised wheel-offset for our FSAE race-car. To address the issue with an added advantage of reduced un-sprung mass and lower rotational inertia, CFRP wheel centres were introduced. Previously the team used the Keizer Wheel Centre made of Aluminium (1.8 kilograms) which didn’t provide the required wheel-offset as per the geometry designed by the Vehicle Dynamics (VD) team. So, the composite department worked on the development of CFRP 24-layered wheel centre.Designing of CFRP Wheel Centre was based on the design constraints such as distance between hub and wheel assembly to ensure the same geometry of the car as per the design of VD within the set of Formula Student rules. To develop the CFRP Wheel Centre and CAE routine were…
 

Downhill Safety Assistant Driving System for Battery Electric Vehicles on Mountain Roads

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Jia'ao Feng, Zhongpeng TIAN, Jian Cui, Fangyu Zhou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2129
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
When driving in mountainous areas, vehicles often encounter downhill conditions. To ensure safe driving, it is necessary to control the speed of vehicles. For internal combustion engine vehicles, auxiliary brake such as engine brake can be used to alleviate the thermal load caused by the continuous braking of the friction brake. For battery electric vehicles (BEVs), regenerative braking can be used as auxiliary braking to improve brake safety. And through regenerative braking, energy can be partly converted into electrical energy and stored in accumulators (such as power batteries and supercapacitors), thus extending the mileage. However, the driver's line of sight in the mountains is limited, resulting in a certain degree of blindness in driving, so it is impossible to fully guarantee the safety and energy saving of downhill driving. Therefore, taking a battery electric light truck as an example, the system proposed in this paper first analyzes the driver's driving intention, proposes the system startup and exit strategy, and then combines the geographic information system (GIS) mountain road information, downslope speed limit and vehicle parameters,…
 

Research on Integrated Performance Design for the Braking System

Hyundai & Kia Corporation-Wookhyun Han, Kee-Young Yang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2120
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Braking performance is the most important performance governing passenger safety. To predict braking performance, brake circuit and vehicle dynamics and control models are required. In this study, an integrated system analysis loop consisting of circuit system simulation and control logic and a vehicle dynamics model is proposed.
 

Speed Planning and Prompting System for Commercial Vehicle Based on Real-Time Calculation of Resistance

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Wuhan University of Technology, China-Zhaocong Sun, Zhimin Li, Jinyi Xia, Gangfeng Tan
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-03-0013
Published 2019-06-25 by SAE International in United States
When commercial vehicles drive in a mountainous area, the complex road condition and long slopes cause frequent acceleration and braking, which will use 25% more fuel. And the brake temperature rises rapidly due to continuous braking on the long-distance downslopes, which will make the brake drum fail with the brake temperature exceeding 308°C [1]. Meanwhile, the kinetic energy is wasted during the driving progress on the slopes when the vehicle rolls up and down. Our laboratory built a model that could calculate the distance from the top of the slope, where the driver could release the accelerator pedal. Thus, on the slope, the vehicle uses less fuel when it rolls up and less brakes when down. What we do in this article is use this model in a real vehicle and measure how well it works. Thus, to improve the safety and economy of commercial vehicles on mountainous areas, the Vehicle Speed Planning and Prompting System based on real-time calculation of resistance is established. The system consists of four parts: Hardware on Vehicle, Microcontroller Unit…
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