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A Machine Learning based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for Lightweighting the Automotive Structures

Mahindra and Mahindra, Ltd.-Ranga Srinivas Gunti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2424
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The present work involves Machine Learning (ML) based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for lightweighting the automotive structures. The challenge in deployment of MMDO algorithms in solving real-world automotive structural design problems is the enormous time involved in solving full vehicle finite element models that involve large number of design variables and multiple performance constraints pertaining to vehicle dynamics, durability, crash and NVH domains. With the availability of powerful workstations and using the advanced Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools, it has become possible to generate huge sets of simulation data pertaining to multiple domains. In the present work, lightweigting of the vehicle structure is achieved, considered the vehicular hardpoint locations and the gages of the vehicle structures as the design variables and performance parameters pertaining to vehicle dynamics, structural durability, front-end intrusions during an IIHS offset impact test and the modal frequencies of few critical structural members as the constraint variables. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) based algorithms were used for developing the predictive models of various performance parameters. The predictive models were then used to…
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Effect of variable payload on Vehicle dynamics of Passenger buses in Indian usage conditions

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Abhoy Chandra, Abhishek Pyasi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2411
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A high impetus from Government on road infrastructure development, is giving a fillip to passenger CV space. This has resulted in making the passenger CV segment lucrative enough, thereby pulling in many operators in the business. The quality of road has immensely improved over a decade, as a result of which the average speed and hence the quantum of distance covered by passenger buses has increased significantly. People are preferring to travel in buses over trains, owing to at par ticket cost, high availability, reduced travel time and also improved level of comfort. Aligned to the market need and the trend, OEM's are offering buses with capable powertrains to cater the need of speed, reduced trip time as well as a lot of attention is also being paid to tune in the comfort level for long hauls. A big chunk of passenger travel is catered by the bus operators especially during major festivals in India. However, the passenger demand is not so consistent in this industry due to seasonality and hence is the operator earnings,…
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Analysis of pressure variation in wheel with the aid of wheel speed sensor

College of Engineering-Pune-Ravindra Dattatray Marwadi, Rajiv Basavarajappa
HELLA India Automotive Pvt Ltd.-Abhishek Mandhana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2450
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective: The Objective of the research is to detect drop in level of pressure in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from speed sensors. The research discusses the standard procedure of experimentation to obtain data which eventually used to produce results. This procedure is taken from principles Design of Experiments. Statistical tools are used to analyze and give determining factors for pressure variation. Methodology: To study idea, we made use of two-wheeler platform and collected data of wheel speed sensors on both wheels. The idea is when there is any change in tire pressure the radius of the wheel also changes and usually this relation is direct. Hence, change in tire pressure changes the angular velocity of the wheel. In this approach wheel speed sensors are used to measure the angular speed for standard and reduced pressure conditions. The data obtained from the wheel speed sensor is analyzed through statistical methods and different determining values are calculated. These determining parameters are compared to see the variations in the pressure. To obtain…
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Model Based Design of Chassis-Frame with MATLAB

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Rishabh Singh parihar, Gaurav Sharma, Nitinkumar prabhakar patil, Yogendra Aniya
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2429
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In the current commercial vehicles market, ride-comfort and handling are crucial parameters for the customer and end user. There are various aspects which determine the vehicle behaviour. One of aspects is the structural rigidity of the vehicle, which has its own effect on vehicle dynamics. To meet the required stiffness of the main structural component of the vehicle i.e. chassis frame, FEA analysis has to be done in current methodology. The number of iterations have to be done to build an appropriate model with low weight, which can meet the design requirements. At first, conceptual design mock-up unit is to be developed then FEA (CAE) analysis to be done on it. If any design criteria are not met, then this cycle repeats again until it fulfils the required stiffness. Today, the direct stiffness procedure is the basic principle of almost every FEA software package. In this paper, computer code based on MATLAB software is provided and presented for the analysis of the chassis frame using the direct stiffness method. The code, models a structure of…
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Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Divyanshu Joshi, Saravanan Muthiah
Mahindra Research Valley-Shubham Kedia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2397
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Title Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation Authors Mr. Shubham Kedia, Dr. Divyanshu Joshi, Dr. Muthiah Saravanan Mahindra Research Valley, Mahindra & Mahindra, Chennai Objective Objective metrics for evaluation of major vehicle dynamics performance attributes i.e. ride, handling and steering are required to compare, validate and optimize dynamic behavior of vehicles. Some of these objective metrics are recommended and defined by ISO and SAE, which involve data processing, statistical analysis and complex mathematical operations on acquired data, through simulations or experimental testing. Due to the complexity of operations and volume of data, evaluation is often time consuming and tedious. Process automation using existing tools such as MS Excel, nCode, Siemens LMS, etc. includes several limitations and challenges, which make it cumbersome to implement. In the current work, a GUI based post-processing tool is developed for automated evaluation of ride, handling and steering performance. Methodology This work is about development of a centralized platform for quantification, visualization and comparison of ride, handling and steering performance metrics from testing and…
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Nonlinear Iterative Optimization Process for Multichannel Remote Parameter Control

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

China-Yong Zhang
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China-Meng Li
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-03-0015
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
In this article, compared with traditional Remote Parameter Control (RPC), the iterative process is improved based on linear transfer function (TF) estimation of the nonlinear dynamic system. In the improved RPC, the iteration coefficient is designed according to the convergence condition of the nonlinear iterative process, so that the convergence level, convergence speed, and iteration stability could be improved. The difference between the traditional and the improved RPC iterative process is discussed, the RPC iterative process of the nonlinear system is analyzed, and channel decoupling for Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) system based on eigen-decomposition of the system TF and linear TF estimation is introduced. It assumes that the eigenvector matrix of the system TF remains the same, and the linear TF in the iterative process is estimated and updated, which is used for iterative calculation. The method for iteration coefficient is designed according to the nonlinear system convergence condition of the iterative process. The whole theory is verified on a two-channel electrohydraulic servo system and a lightweight motorcycle. The optimization strategy can be used not only…
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Design and Fabrication of CFRP Wheel Centre for FSAE Race-Car

VIT-Sangeet Aggarwal, Renold Elsen
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In this work, a Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Wheel Centre (WC) is designed targeting key parameters such as reduced un-sprung mass and lower rotational inertia in vehicle dynamics. A Keizer Aluminium Wheel Centre was used by the team previously and it weighed around 1.8 Kg. Designing of CFRP Wheel Centre was based on previously used Keizer Aluminium wheel centre considering the design constraints such as distance between hub and wheel assembly. This was done to ensure the same trackwidth within the Formula Student rules. Initially, the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was carried out for the Keizer Aluminium wheel centre and the results were analysed. For the same design CFRP material was used and the result was found out to be promising with a wheel centre weight of 1.3 Kg. Further to improve the performance and weight reduction, FEA was done to design a 38 layered CFRP wheel centre giving utmost priority to ease of manufacturability and safe design. After manufacturing, the CFRP wheel centre weighed 950g and was implemented on PRV17 (Pravega Racing’s FSAE…
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A Dictionary of Terms for the Dynamics and Handling of Single Track Vehicles (Motorcycles, Scooters, Mopeds, and Bicycles)

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1451_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-24 by SAE International in United States
This dictionary of terms was prepared for use by those with a need to describe and understand the dynamics and handling of two-wheeled, single track vehicles. It is intended to span the gap between vehicle dynamics specialists and those with a more general interest. This report is pertinent to such areas as vehicle design and development, the description of two-wheeler properties, rider training and education, and the preparation of standards and regulations. This report was prepared by the SAE Motorcycle Committee, which solicits suggestions for improvements and additions to be considered in future revisions. Comments should be directed to SAE Headquarters.
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Downhill Safety Assistant Driving System for Battery Electric Vehicles on Mountain Roads

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Jia'ao Feng, Zhongpeng Tian, Jian Cui, Fangyu Zhou
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
When driving in mountainous areas, vehicles often encounter downhill conditions. To ensure safe driving, it is necessary to control the speed of vehicles. For internal combustion engine vehicles, auxiliary brake such as engine brake can be used to alleviate the thermal load caused by the continuous braking of the friction brake. For battery electric vehicles (BEVs), regenerative braking can be used as auxiliary braking to improve brake safety. And through regenerative braking, energy can be partly converted into electrical energy and stored in accumulators (such as power batteries and supercapacitors), thus extending the mileage.However, the driver's line of sight in the mountains is limited, resulting in a certain degree of blindness in driving, so it is impossible to fully guarantee the safety and energy saving of downhill driving. Therefore, taking a pure electric light truck as an example, the system proposed in this paper first analyzes the driver's driving intention, proposes the system startup and exit strategy, and then combines the geographic information system (GIS) mountain road information, downslope speed limit and vehicle parameters, considering…
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Study on Vehicle Spin Tendency during Braking on Differential mu Surfaces in Four Wheeled Automobile Vehicle

Mahindra Research Valley-Kartheek Nedunuri, Rajakumar K, Santosh Lalasure
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
A four-wheeled automobile during braking event in which left and right wheels of the vehicle are on different mu surfaces, has high chances of experiencing spin, which may lead to stability issues on vehicle. This paper intends to provide a mathematical approach to predict the deceleration at which vehicle will spin during braking in a differential mu surface, and determine the effect of influencing parameters on the extent of the vehicle spin tendency. This paper also provides a correlation between theoretical vs actual decelerations for vehicles to exhibit vehicle spin tendency. This paper helps in providing sufficient aid/tool for system designer to predetermine the vehicle spin at early level of system designs and make necessary amendments at initial stage of prototype development rather than late changes, to create a product which gives safe driving experience.
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