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Driveline NVH integration of A NA truck program

American Axle & Manufacturing-Ying Peng, Zhenghong Shi, Christopher Folts, Gregory Kopp, Zhaohui Sun, Alexander Sandstrom
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1559
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
In current automotive industry, it is well known that the driveline subsystem and components are normally from different automotive suppliers for OEMs. In order to ensure proper system integration and successful development of driveline system NVH performances, collaboration efforts between OEMs and suppliers are very demanding and important. In this paper, a process is presented to achieve successfulness in developing and optimizing vehicle integration through effective teamwork between a driveline supplier and a major OEM. The development process includes multiple critical steps. They include target development and roll down, targets being specific and measurable, comprehension of interactions of driveline and vehicle dynamics, accurate definition of sensitivity, proper deployment of modal mapping strategy, which requires open data sharing; and system dynamics and optimization. More specially, the supplier can work with OEM to seek the most cost effective solutions, through tuning the driveline system dynamics to provide “quiet” frequency zone against vehicle sensitivity, to avoid normally needed costly suspension changes. A case study of a pickup vehicle driveline program integration is used in this paper to illustrate…
 
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A Combination of Intelligent Tire and Vehicle Dynamic Based Algorithm to Estimate the Tire-Road Friction

NIO, USA-Omid Ghasemalizadeh
Texas State University, USA-Seyedmeysam Khaleghian
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0007
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
One of the most important factors affecting the performance of vehicle active chassis control systems is the tire-road friction coefficient. Accurate estimation of the friction coefficient can lead to better performance of these controllers. In this study, a new three-step friction estimation algorithm, based on intelligent tire concept, is proposed, which is a combination of experiment-based and vehicle dynamic based approaches. In the first step of the proposed algorithm, the normal load is estimated using a trained Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The network was trained using the experimental data collected using a portable tire testing trailer. In the second step of the algorithm, the tire forces and the wheel longitudinal velocity are estimated through a two-step Kalman filter. Then, in the last step, using the estimated tire normal load and longitudinal and lateral forces, the friction coefficient can be estimated. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, experiments were performed using the trailer test setup and friction was calculated using the measured forces. Good agreement was observed between the estimated and actual friction coefficients.
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Lateral and Tangential Accelerations of Left Turning Vehicles from Naturalistic Observations

Kineticorp LLC-Neal Carter, Steven Beier, Rheana Cordero
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0421
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
When reconstructing collisions involving left turning vehicles at intersections, accident reconstructionists are often required to determine the relative timing and spacing between two vehicles involved in such a collision. This time-space analysis frequently involves determining or prescribing a path and acceleration profile for the left turning vehicle. Although numerous studies have examined the straight-line acceleration of vehicles, only two studies have presented the tangential and lateral acceleration of left turning vehicles. This paper expands on the results of those limited studies and presents a methodology to automatically detect and track vehicles in a video file. The authors made observations of left turning vehicles at three intersections. Each intersection incorporated permissive green turn phases for left turning vehicles. The authors recorded video of left turning vehicles at each intersection from a small unmanned aerial system (sUAS), and that video was analyzed with a convolutional neural network designed to detect vehicles. The detected vehicles were then tracked over time and the results were analyzed. A total of 86 left turning vehicles were analyzed. In 23 of the…
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Analysis of Passive Low Power Phase Change Heat Dissipation Method for Electric Vehicle Motor

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Shiping Huang, Yishi Wang, Jianjie Kuang, Jiakang Quan, Xiaofei Ma
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The electric vehicle motor is developing toward high power density, at the same time brings serious temperature rise problem, which affect the driving motor performance, efficiency, and useful life. Liquid cooling is usually used to solve the problem, but its energy consumption is large and the reliability is poor. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a heat dissipation method to improve the reliability and energy efficiency of the driving motor heat dissipation system. The method uses heat pipes heat transfer, and the heat pipes cold end are cooled by vehicle facing the wind. By establishing the motor temperature rise model, heat transfer model and vehicle dynamics model, this paper analyzes the maximum temperature region and reliability of the driving motor heat dissipation system, calculates and analyzes the efficiency of the driving motor under different driving conditions. The results show that with the heat dissipation method of this paper, the reliability of the driving motor cooling system has been improved; the overall efficiency of the driving motor can be increased by 7.4%-27.9% and…
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How to Model Real-World Driving Behavior? Probability-Based Driver Model for Energy Analyses

Daimler AG-Tobias Schuermann, Tobias Goedecke, Stefan Schmiedler, Daniel Goerke
University of Applied Sciences Esslingen-Kai André Boehm
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A wide variety of applications such as driver assistant and energy management systems are researched and developed in virtual test environments. The safe testing of the applications in early stages is based on parameterizable and reproducible simulations of different driving scenarios. One possibility is modeling the microscopic driving behavior to simulate the longitudinal vehicle dynamics of individual vehicles. The currently used driver models are characterized by a conflict regarding comprehensibility, accuracy and calibration effort. Due to the importance for further analyses this conflict of interests is addressed by the presentation of a new microscopic driver model in this paper. The proposed driver model stores measured driving behaviors with its statistical distributions in maps. Thereby, the driving task is divided into free flow, braking in front of stops and following vehicles ahead. This makes it possible to display the driving behavior in its entirety. The comprehensibility of this driver model is given by its simplicity and the calibration effort is low with existing measurement data. These data are recorded with a testing vehicle by a map-…
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Development of a Standalone Application in MATLAB to Generate Brake Performance Data

Indian Institute of Technology-Harsh Kumar Singh
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Babasaheb Shinde
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Predicting the brake performance and characteristics is a crucial task in the vehicle development activity. Performance prediction is a challenge because of the involvement of various parts in the brake assembly like booster, master cylinder, calipers, disc and drum brakes. Determination of these characteristics through vehicle level tests requires a lot of time and money. This performance prediction is achieved by theoretical calculations involving vehicle dynamics. The final output must satisfy the regulations. This project involves the creation of a standalone application using MATLAB to predict the various brake performances such as: booster characteristics, adhesion curves, deceleration and pedal effort curves, behavior of brakes during brake and booster failed conditions and braking force diagrams based on the given user inputs. Previously, MS Excel and an application developed in the TK Solver environment was used to predict the brake performance curves. Debugging and inclusion of new modules was a major issue in old applications. Also, the previous applications lacked ABS module, which after the new government norms will be implemented in every vehicle. Thus, there was…
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Snowmobile Lane Change Dynamics with One and Two Occupants

30 Forensic Engineering-Mark Paquette, Harrison Griffiths
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As with other motor vehicles, snowmobile operators are occasionally presented with potential hazards that require a response to avoid an impending collision. The typical responses involve either braking, steering, or a combination of both. Although the braking deceleration capabilities of snowmobiles have been documented in several published studies, there is a lack of available data regarding the swerving capability of snowmobiles. In addition, it is unknown if the presence of a passenger on a snowmobile negatively affects its swerving capabilities, and if so, to what extent. This paper presents data gathered during swerve testing conducted on an instrumented snowmobile in northern Ontario with two different operators, and with one and two occupants.
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Sensitivity Analysis of Tire-Soil Interaction Using Finite Element Analysis and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Techniques

UOIT-Mirwais Sharifi, Moustafa El-Gindy
University of Ontario Institute of Technology-Zeinab El-Sayegh
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the modelling, calibration and sensitivity analysis of LETE sand soil using Visual Environment’s Pam Crash. LETE sand is modelled and converted from Finite Element Analysis mesh (FEA) to Smooth-particle hydrodynamics (SPH). The sand is then calibrated using terramechanics published data by simulating a pressure sinkage test and shear box test using the SPH LETE sand particles. The material properties such as tangent modulus, yield strength and bulk modulus are configured so the simulation’s results match those of theoretical values. Sensitivity analysis of the calibrated LETE sand material is then investigated. The sensitivity analysis includes mesh size, plate geometry, smoothing length, max smoothing length, artificial viscosity and contact thickness. The effect of these parameters on the sand behavior is analyzed. Finally, SPH LETE Sand is used to determine the rolling resistance coefficient of FEA off-road truck tire size 315/80R22.5 for different mesh size sand particles. The results found within this paper will be continued in regard to achieving better understanding of vehicle dynamics for tire-terrain interaction.
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Customer Oriented Vehicle Dynamics Assessment for Autonomous Driving in Highway

Centro Ricerche Fiat-Giovanni Gabiati
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles-Silvio Data
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous Driving is one of the main subjects of academic research and one important trend in the automotive industry. With the advent of self-driving vehicles, the interest around trajectory planning raises, in particular when a customer-oriented analysis is performed, since more and more the carmakers will have to pay attention to the handling comfort.With that in mind, an experimental approach is proposed to assess the main characteristics of human driving and gain knowledge to enhance quality of autonomous vehicles. Focusing on overtaking maneuvers in a highway environment, four comfort indicators are proposed aiming to capture the key aspects of the chosen paths of a heterogeneous cohort.The analysis of the distribution of these indicators (peak to peak lateral acceleration, RMS lateral acceleration, Smoothness and Jerk) allowed the definition of a human drive profile. These characteristics were then transferred to the simulation environment to create a pseudo-natural trajectory planning strategy, via polynomial fitting and spline optimization. This strategy differs from the standard approach of trajectory planning, where absolute minimums of cost functions are pursued.The polynomial and spline…
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An Innovative Test System for Holistic Vehicle Dynamics Testing

FKFS-Jens Neubeck
MTS Systems Corp.-Ford Boone, Wilbur Kan
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the automotive industry, there is a continued need to improve the development process and handle the increasing complexity of the overall vehicle system. One major step in this process is a comprehensive and complementary approach to both simulation and testing. Knowledge of the overall dynamic vehicle behavior is becoming increasingly important for the development of new control concepts such as integrated vehicle dynamics control aiming to improve handling quality and ride comfort. However, with current well-established test systems, only separated and isolated aspects of vehicle dynamics can be evaluated.To address these challenges and further merge the link between simulation and testing, the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK), University of Stuttgart is introducing a new Handling Roadway (HRW) Test System in cooperation with The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) and MTS Systems Corporation. The HRW allows testing of a vehicle’s combined longitudinal, lateral and vertical characteristics and therefore provides the possibility to supplement road testing with integrated vehicle testing under laboratory conditions.IVK, FKFS and MTS agreed…
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