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Effects of Engine Speed on the Performance at Extreme Vehicle Driving Conditions

FCA LATAM, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Fabrício Thomaz, José Guilherme Coelho Baeta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0297
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, improvements in engine fuel economy and reduction in pollutant emissions have been much discussed. Downsizing and downspeeding are methods widely used in the automotive market, used to increase internal combustion engine efficiency. Fuel consumption is commonly measured through a specific cycle that could differ between countries. Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) for Latin America and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) for Europe are some examples. These cycles include normal driving conditions, low vehicle load and mild environmental conditions. The style of gear shifting is one of the main factors affecting fuel efficiency and performance of motor vehicles. At extreme diving conditions, parameters like coolant and air charge temperature could reach limit durability values of the system. In order to avoid knocking and maintain structural reliability, it becomes mandatory to control the engine speed. An increase in engine speed reduces engine load requirements and thus, turbocharger loads. Lower turbocharger requirements reduce ACT and, consequently, reduce knocking. This process allows an advanced ignition timing, enabling more chamber pressure and improving fuel conversion efficiency. However, a higher engine…
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Turbocharger Performance Prediction: A Review of Map Modelling

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica - Universid-José Arthur G. S. Teixeira, Oscar R. Sandoval, Bryan Castro Caetano, José Guilherme Coelho Baeta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0120
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Supercharging has been increasingly more employed as an approach to improve the internal combustion engine (ICE) thermal efficiency. The turbocharger (TC) stands out as a well-established technology which recovers waste energy from exhaust gases to increase the ICE intake pressure and mass flow rate. Nevertheless, the increasingly stringent restrictions on greenhouse gases emission, concomitantly with performance improvement required from customers, impose a tighter pairing between TC and ICE and higher control of TC operational conditions. Matching a proper TC for a given ICE has a major importance for the global efficiency, having direct impact on specific consumption, emission levels and drivability. This process is typically performed using computational simulations via interpolations of TC tabular performance maps, which details the flow status for given shaft speed and mass flow rate. Although this method provides a reliable and accurate description of the TC performance within the mapped domain, the multiple interpolations and extrapolations required entails high computational costs. Furthermore, the extrapolations required to describe the flow outside the mapped domain are not able to predict well the…
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Two-Degree-of-Freedom Controller Design for Diesel Engine Airpath System Considering Dynamics of Turbocharger and Manifolds

University of Tokyo-Motoki Takahashi, Yudai Yamazaki, Shigehiko Kaneko
Utsunomiya University-Mitsuo Hirata, Tomofumi Hayashi, Teruhiko Asahi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2321
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
We developed a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) control system for a diesel engine airpath system. First, a physical airpath model of the diesel engine was developed, followed by a nonlinear feedforward controller developed based on the inverse characteristics of the developed physical model. The dynamics of turbocharger and manifolds were considered in the feedforward controller to improve the transient response. The feedback controller was designed by H∞ control theory considering plant nonlinearities as uncertainties. The feedforward and feedback controllers were implemented as a 2-DOF freedom control scheme. The effectiveness of the proposed method was evaluated by conducting simulation and experiment.
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Alternative Engine Oil Formulating Solutions to Reduce Low Speed Pre-Ignition

Chevron Energy Technology Company-Amir Maria, Theresa Gunawan
Chevron Oronite Company LLC-Ian Elliott, Richard Cherpeck
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2153
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Many modern engine platforms use turbochargers to meet higher fuel economy performance, which is often combined with downsizing the engine displacement. Operating downsized, turbocharged, direct injection engines at low speeds and high loads has led to an abnormal combustion phenomenon known as Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), wherein the fuel-air mixture ignites before the spark occurs. LSPI can lead to extremely high pressures in the combustion chamber, which can damage hardware such as pistons, piston rings, and spark plugs.Lubricants, fuels, and engine operating conditions have been shown to impact LSPI. Any of these can be modified to improve LSPI performance. One solution which has been used widely in the industry is reformulating the lubricant additive package. In particular, calcium-based detergents have been shown to promote LSPI, while magnesium detergents appear neutral to LSPI. Reducing the usage of calcium detergents can impact other performance areas such as deposit control and fuel economy, and limits formulating flexibility. Finding an additive solution to LSPI which does not require a reduction in calcium allows for more component options in formulating…
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Research of the High Altitude Control Strategy of the Piston Aero-engine Using Two-stage Turbocharger Coupled with single Supercharging System

Beijing Institute of Technology-Jianwei Tan
Beijing Power Machinery Institute-Zhe Zhang, Maoyu Xiao, Mingwei Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2211
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Aiming at the high altitude operation problems for piston-type aero-engines and to improve the practical ceiling and high altitude dynamic performance, this thesis analyzes a controllable three-stage composite supercharging system, using a two-stage turbocharger coupled supercharger method. The GT-Power simulation model of a four-cylinder boxer engine was established, and the control strategy of variable flight height was obtained. The simulation research of engine performance from 0 to 20,000 meters above sea level has been carried out, which shows that the engine power is at the same level as the plain condition, and it could still maintain 85.28 percent of power even at the height of 20,000 meters, which meets the flight requirements of the aircraft.
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Design and Development of Constant Speed Diesel Engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIE

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Omprakash Yadav, Piyush Ranjan, Vishal Kumar, Vasundhara Arde, Sanjay Aurora, Remesan Chirakkal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2549
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Development trend in diesel engine is to achieve more power from same size of engine. With increase in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), the peak firing pressure will also increase. The methodology to control the peak firing pressure on higher BMEP is the major challenge. We achieved better SFC with CPCB II emission targets on a constant speed engine. This study involves a systematic approach to optimize combustion parameters with a cost effective and robust Inline Fuel Injection System.This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for achieving the power density of 25kW/lit @ 1500 rpm with Inline FIP by keeping lower Peak firing pressure. Various combustion parameters such as Combustion Bowl Geometry, selection of Turbocharger, Swirl, FIP, Nozzle configuration, EGR flow rate, EGR operation strategy, optimizing injection pressures, start of injection, end of injection, injection duration are optimized. The innovative way of Temperature Input based EGR valve operation is used to meet emission at reduced cost and complexity.This Paper describes Inline Fuel Injection solution for meeting CPCB II emission norms up to…
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Neural Network Based Hybridized Dynamic Models for Connected Vehicles - A Case Study on Turbocharger Position Prediction

Continental Germany-Richard Kopold
Continental India-Vivek Venkobarao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2443
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Combustion engine driven vehicles operating in a connected and autonomous vehicle (CAVs) environment, the engine drive cycles are run in a regulated manner. This is due to synchronized movement of vehicles operating in connected environment. Hence, developing intelligent and faster control of airpath variable with smooth transient tracking, helps to achieve a synchronized drive cycle. With regards to this author discuss modeling of turbocharger. This is critical for airpath system variable calculation. Due to the hybridized nature of turbocharger models, predicting accurately the position of VTG without introduction of any sensing devices is key, as sensing device induces delay in action. Authors propose a model which improve the performance and capability of VTG position prediction. A neural network based supervised learning model is developed. This model is coupled with engine models which are in series application for performance evaluation. The model is trained and validated with field data. Based on performance analysis there is a strong correlation between the model and the data. The developed model is easily scaled up for various components and be…
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Implementation of Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems in the Manufacturing of Turbo Charger Turbine Housing

Turbo Energy Private Ltd-Murugan Vanamurthy
Turbo Energy Private Ltd.-Kumaran Aravindh, Kumaran Arun
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Today manufacturing industries have become more competitive and to survive, industries should be capable of accommodating the sudden market change. The conventional manufacturing systems like Dedicated Manufacturing Lines (DMLs) can produce high volume of product but difficult to cater to varying product types. On the other hand, Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is capable of handling product variety but not suited for mass production, The Reconfigurable Manufacturing System (RMS) gives the advantage of both the system, as it has the capability to adjust to both high volume requirement and product variety, and it able to upgrade to new process technology with minimal effort. In this work the reconfiguration is carried out in machine and system level. At machine level, a new inspection machine is proposed which can be used for multiple products with minimal adjustments and a special drilling and bore tool is suggested to reduce the cycle time and ramp up time when product changes. At system level a new layout is proposed which can handle multiple products effectively and which requires less space compared…
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Features of Mathematical Modeling in the Problems of Determining the Power of a Turbocharged Engine According to the Characteristics of the Turbocharger

SAE International Journal of Engines

Kherson State Maritime Academy, Ukraine-Igor Gritsuk, Maksym Ahieiev, Dmytro Pohorletskyi, Igor Khudiakov
National University “Odessa Law Academy”, Ukraine-Vadym Popeliuk
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-01-0001
Published 2019-10-08 by SAE International in United States
The features of modeling the working process of a turbocharged two stroke marine diesel engine (MDE) in order to reveal the relationship between the engine power and the operation modes of a turbocharger (TC) are discussed in the article. Based on the results of modeling, a model was obtained for the dependence of the power of the MDE on the parameters of the TC operation. As a basic parameter of the TC operation, the TC speed was chosen. The scavenging air temperature is selected as an additional parameter. The article describes the structure of a diagnostic system that allows recording the operating modes of a TC in a noncontact method. The research for vibroacoustic fields of the G70-883kW marine engine was carried out by the author on ship “SEMINOLE,” in the process of research a noncontact vibroacoustic method was used to determine the TC speed. An analysis of the obtained experimental results demonstrates that the use of the averaged model of the dependence of the engine power on the TC speed for one engine family…
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Turbocharger Thermal Transfer Model Initialization: Quasi-Adiabatic Map Calculation

Ecole Centrale De Nantes-Guillaume Goumy, Pierre Marty, Pascal Chesse, Nicolas Perrot, Rémi Dubouil, Georges Salameh
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
To comply with the evermore stringent polluting emission regulation, such as Euro 6c and its new homologation WTLP cycle, the use of turbochargers, already high in Diesel engines, is steeply rising in Gasoline ones. Turbochargers come into a large variety of implementations such as single/two stage(s) or even parallel. In the meantime, car manufacturers intend to decrease development cost and time by using more and more simulation over experimental measurements. However, usual turbocharger models have not followed this trend of modernity.While the heating part of the standard driving test cycle becomes a major topic, turbocharger models are still map based, built from turbocharger manufacturer’s data and measured only in hot conditions. To improve their accuracy, new turbocharger models need to take into account the thermal transfers. The phenomenon has been widely studied, and different models have been proposed to solve this problem but they require specific data for their calibration. This is hardly compatible with the industry habits.Deriving from an initial turbocharger model with thermal transfer, this paper presents a method to evaluate quasi-adiabatic turbine…
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