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Evaluation of General Motors Event Data Recorder Performance in Semi-Trailer Rear Underride Collisions

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Nicholas Famiglietti, Ryan Hoang, Edward Fatzinger, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1328
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study was to analyze the validity of airbag control module data in semi-trailer rear underride collisions. These impacts involve unusual collision dynamics, including long crash pulses and minimal bumper engagement [1]. For this study, publicly available data from 16 semi-trailer underride guard crash tests performed by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) were used to form conclusions about the accuracy of General Motors airbag control module (ACM) delta-V (ΔV) data in a semi-trailer rear underride scenario. These tests all utilized a 2009 or 2010 Chevrolet Malibu impacting a stationary 48’ or 53’ semi-trailer at a speed of 35 mph. Nine tests were fully overlapped collisions, six were 30% overlapped, and one was 50% overlapped [2]. The IIHS test vehicles were equipped with calibrated 10000 Hz accelerometer units. Event Data Recorder (EDR) data imaged post-accident from the test vehicles were compared to the reference IIHS data. For each test, root mean square error (RMSE), the percent error over time, and the difference between the EDR ΔV and the IIHS ΔV, was…
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Primary and Auxiliary Seven Conductor Electrical Connector for Truck-Trailer Jumper Cable

Truck and Bus Electrical Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J560_202002
  • Current
Published 2020-02-25 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard provides the minimum requirements for primary and auxiliary jumper cable plug and receptacle for the truck-trailer and converter dolly jumper cable systems for 12 VDC nominal applications. It includes the test procedures, design, and performance requirements.
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Material Selection and Structural Optimization for Lightweight Truck Trailer Design

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

RMIT University, Australia-Joel Galos
University of Cambridge, UK-Michael Sutcliffe
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-04-0022
Published 2020-02-18 by SAE International in United States
This article investigates options for lightweighting truck trailers through a combination of material selection and structural optimization. Critical chassis design load cases were established and a parametric finite element (FE) model of a typical European-style 13.5 m long truck trailer built from steel I-beams was developed. The model has been used to show that existing longitudinal steel I-beams could be reduced in weight by 28% (140 kg) through shape optimization alone. The model was expanded to analyze holistic composite trailer structures. It showed that up to 67% (1,326 kg) of weight could be saved by executing shape and material optimization in unison. The approach highlights that design through parametric analysis allows for many different structural configurations to be assessed in terms of both mechanical performance and material cost. This facilitates the construction of a theoretical design space of a lightweight chassis, clarifying the weight reduction limits that could be achieved with lightweight materials and structural optimization. The lightweight trailer chassis designs proposed here are also compared against a portfolio of shorter-term strategies for trailer lightweighting.…
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Wheel End Assembly and Axle Spindle Interface Dimensions - Truck and Bus

Truck and Bus Wheel Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2475_202002
  • Current
Published 2020-02-13 by SAE International in United States
This recommended practice contains dimensions and tolerances for spindles in the interface area. Interfacing components include axle spindle, spindle threads, bearing cones, bearing spacer, seal, and wheel hub. This recommended practice is intended for axles commonly used on Class 7 and 8 commercial vehicles. Included are SAE axle configurations FF, FL, I80, L, N, P, R, U, and W.
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Research on Steering Control of Multi-Axle Steering Heavy Commercial Vehicle Based on Reducing Tire Wear

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Jilin University, China-Pan Kaiqiang, Zheng Hongyu, Wu Jianjun, Xiao Huan
  • Journal Article
  • 10-04-01-0005
Published 2020-01-27 by SAE International in United States
This article proposes a new multi-axle steering vehicle (MSV) kinematics model to improve the tire wear of multi-axle heavy commercial vehicles while ensuring driving safety. The MSV kinematics model is based on the Ackerman steering geometry, which properly distributes the tire steering angles of each axle to cause the tractor unit and the trailer unit of the multi-axle heavy commercial vehicle to steer around the same steering center. In order to compensate for the influence of the factors such as the slip angle of each tire, the adjustment parameter K is introduced to reasonably adjust the relationship between the steering wheel angle input and the tire steering angles of each axle of the trailer unit. The adjustment parameter K makes the trajectory of the trailer unit of the MSV accurately follow the trajectory of the tractor unit of the MSV without changing the trajectory of the tractor unit. In order to verify the validity of the proposed model, the co-simulation of circular motion was carried out under the condition of Matlab/Simulink and TruckSim, and the…
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Truck Trailer Aerodynamic Design Optimization Through CFD Simulations

GM North America-Leonardo José Della Volpe
Imperial College London / NDF-USP-Filipe Fabian Buscariolo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0103
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Cargo trucks are one of the most important and flexible ways of moving cargo within inlands. In some countries, such as Brazil, the economy relies on them to transport all kinds of products, from field and factory to consumer. In order to reduce freight prices, beside route optimization, truck manufactures started to focus on the aerodynamics development of those vehicles, in order to improve the efficiency, reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Although the truck aerodynamics development is important, most vehicles are not manufactured or don’t consider the truck trailer, which plays a key role in the full aerodynamics performance of the truck, once it might increase the front area and also change the overall aero performance.Considering the fact that only few Wind Tunnel facilities in the world are capable of testing a full truck with trailer, the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for the evaluation of the full truck system became the best solution in order to improve the aerodynamic performance of those vehicles. The study here presented proposes the CFD evaluation of…
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WHAT WE'RE DRIVING

Automotive Engineering: January/February 2020

  • Magazine Article
  • 20AUTP02_08
Published 2020-01-01 by SAE International in United States

A summer job during college gave me occasion to drive a Mack R-model dump truck. This Class-8 bruiser's inline-six diesel delivered 280 hp and 1,000 lb-ft (1,356 Nm). I thought of that smoky old Mack while driving Ford's latest SuperDuty pickups in real-world hauling demos in the Arizona mountains.

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Research on the Control Strategy of Trailer Tracking Tractor for Articulated Heavy Vehicles

China-Hongyu Zheng
Jilin University-Kaiqiang Pan, Jianjun Wu
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this paper is to improve the path-following capability and high-speed lateral stability of the articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs). The six-axle heavy articulated vehicle was taken as the research object, in order to simplify the control design, the three-axle trailer of the articulated vehicles was simplified to a single-axle trailer. The Newton's second law was applied to the tractor unit and the single-axle trailer unit respectively, a three-degree-of-freedom vehicle yaw plane model was established, and its state space equation was derived. The trailer steering controller was designed by linear quadratic regulator (LQR) technique. At the same time, the optimal index function was determined by combining the vehicle state variables, and the optimal control input was obtained by using the algebraic Riccati equation. In order to achieve better control of the trailer unit, the relationship of the Ackerman steering geometry is used to obtain the ideal angle of each tire of the trailer unit. Co-simulation of low-speed steady circular motion and double lane change motion in Matlab/Simulink and Trucksim was carried out to verify…
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A Heavy Tractor Semi-Trailer Stability Control Strategy Based on Electronic Pneumatic Braking System HIL Test

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Aptiv PLC, USA-Bin Li
State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and Control, Jilin University, China-Hongyu Zheng, Yangyang Miao
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-03-0016
Published 2019-10-15 by SAE International in United States
Aiming to improve the handling performance of heavy tractor semi-trailer during turning or changing lanes at high speed, a hierarchical structure controller is proposed and a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench of the electronic pneumatic braking system is developed to validate the proposed controller. In the upper controller, a Kalman filter observer based on the heavy tractor semi-trailer dynamic model is used to estimate the yaw rates and sideslip angles of the tractor and trailer. Simultaneously, a sliding mode direct yaw moment controller is developed, which takes the estimated yaw rates and sideslip angles and the reference values calculated by the three-degrees-of-freedom dynamic model of the heavy tractor semi-trailer as the control inputs. In the lower controller, the additional yaw moments of tractor and trailer are transformed into corresponding wheel braking forces according to the current steering characteristics. The HIL test bench of the electronic pneumatic braking system is built to verify the effectiveness of the strategy. Double lane-change maneuver, sinusoidal maneuver, and J-turn maneuver are selected as handling and stability test conditions. The LabView real-time…
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Antilock Brake Systems Energy Consumption Test Procedure for Air-Brake-Equipped Truck Tractors, Buses, Trailers, and Dollies

Truck and Bus Brake Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2255_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice provides instructions and test procedures for measuring air consumption of air braked vehicles equipped with Antilock Brake Systems (ABS) used on highways.
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