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Truck Trailer Aerodynamic Design Optimization Through CFD Simulations

GM North America-Leonardo José Della Volpe
Imperial College London / NDF-USP-Filipe Fabian Buscariolo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0103
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Cargo trucks are one of the most important and flexible ways of moving cargo within inlands. In some countries, such as Brazil, the economy relies on them to transport all kinds of products, from field and factory to consumer. In order to reduce freight prices, beside route optimization, truck manufactures started to focus on the aerodynamics development of those vehicles, in order to improve the efficiency, reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Although the truck aerodynamics development is important, most vehicles are not manufactured or don’t consider the truck trailer, which plays a key role in the full aerodynamics performance of the truck, once it might increase the front area and also change the overall aero performance.Considering the fact that only few Wind Tunnel facilities in the world are capable of testing a full truck with trailer, the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for the evaluation of the full truck system became the best solution in order to improve the aerodynamic performance of those vehicles. The study here presented proposes the CFD evaluation of…
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Truck Tractor Power Outlet for Trailer ABS

Truck and Bus Electrical Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2247_201912
  • Current
Published 2019-12-17 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Recommended Practice identifies the minimum truck tractor electrical power output of the stop lamp and ABS (antilock brake system) circuits measured at the primary SAE J560 tractor trailer interface connector(s).

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Research on the Control Strategy of Trailer Tracking Tractor for Articulated Heavy Vehicles

China-Hongyu Zheng
Jilin University-Kaiqiang Pan, Jianjun Wu
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this paper is to improve the path-following capability and high-speed lateral stability of the articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs). The six-axle heavy articulated vehicle was taken as the research object, in order to simplify the control design, the three-axle trailer of the articulated vehicles was simplified to a single-axle trailer. The Newton's second law was applied to the tractor unit and the single-axle trailer unit respectively, a three-degree-of-freedom vehicle yaw plane model was established, and its state space equation was derived. The trailer steering controller was designed by linear quadratic regulator (LQR) technique. At the same time, the optimal index function was determined by combining the vehicle state variables, and the optimal control input was obtained by using the algebraic Riccati equation. In order to achieve better control of the trailer unit, the relationship of the Ackerman steering geometry is used to obtain the ideal angle of each tire of the trailer unit. Co-simulation of low-speed steady circular motion and double lane change motion in Matlab/Simulink and Trucksim was carried out to verify…
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A Heavy Tractor Semi-Trailer Stability Control Strategy Based on Electronic Pneumatic Braking System HIL Test

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Aptiv PLC, USA-Bin Li
State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and Control, Jilin University, China-Hongyu Zheng, Yangyang Miao
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-03-0016
Published 2019-10-15 by SAE International in United States
Aiming to improve the handling performance of heavy tractor semi-trailer during turning or changing lanes at high speed, a hierarchical structure controller is proposed and a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench of the electronic pneumatic braking system is developed to validate the proposed controller. In the upper controller, a Kalman filter observer based on the heavy tractor semi-trailer dynamic model is used to estimate the yaw rates and sideslip angles of the tractor and trailer. Simultaneously, a sliding mode direct yaw moment controller is developed, which takes the estimated yaw rates and sideslip angles and the reference values calculated by the three-degrees-of-freedom dynamic model of the heavy tractor semi-trailer as the control inputs. In the lower controller, the additional yaw moments of tractor and trailer are transformed into corresponding wheel braking forces according to the current steering characteristics. The HIL test bench of the electronic pneumatic braking system is built to verify the effectiveness of the strategy. Double lane-change maneuver, sinusoidal maneuver, and J-turn maneuver are selected as handling and stability test conditions. The LabView real-time…
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Antilock Brake Systems Energy Consumption Test Procedure for Air-Brake-Equipped Truck Tractors, Buses, Trailers, and Dollies

Truck and Bus Brake Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2255_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice provides instructions and test procedures for measuring air consumption of air braked vehicles equipped with Antilock Brake Systems (ABS) used on highways.
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Setting Preload in Heavy-Duty Wheel Bearings

Truck and Bus Wheel Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2535_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to the four primary, large volume applications in the class 7-8 heavy-duty market place, as specified in SAE J1842: a “N” trailer axle b “R” powered rear axle c “FF / FG” nonpowered front axle d “P” trailer axle This document applies to on-highway applications. It is not applicable to those applications that exceed the GAWR ratings or the load line restrictions listed in columns “A,” “B,” and “C” of Table 1. Load lines are measured from the inboard bearing cup backface as shown in 3.4. This document establishes preload force values only. The methodology to obtain these force values must be determined by the fastener supplier and/or axle assembler. This document reviews the bearing system. It is NOT intended to prescribe (new or existing) axle and/or hub manufacturers’ ratings and/or specifications.
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Analysis of the Tractor-Trailer Dynamics during Braking

Kharkov National Auto and Highway University-Mikhail Podrigalo, Dmytro Klets, Mykhailo Kholodov, Valeriy Klimenko, Anton Kholodov
Zhytomyr State Technological University-Volodymyr Rudzinskyi
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The intensive development of tractor-building industry in the world has led to the widespread use of wheeled tractors and tractor trains in transportations on public highways. This requires an increase of engine capacity and speed of tractor trains, as well as strict demands for their braking systems.The formation of the necessary braking properties of wheeled tractors and tractor trains on their basis should be carried out at the design phase, taking into account a wide range of aggregated machines and tools.Blocking the wheels of the trailer with different sequence of their blocking and blocking the wheels of the tractor has significant impact on the total braking force, deceleration and stability of the tractor train. It is advisable to take this into account when modeling the braking process of a tractor train.The article deals with the braking dynamics of the tractor train and the impact of the dynamic distribution of normal reactions between the axles on the brake properties of the tractor train. The mathematical model of the braking process of the tractor-trailer train (consisting of…
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Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Marco Andre Silva
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Analysis of road accidents has shown that an important portion of fatal crashes involving Commercial Vehicles are caused by rollovers.ESC systems in Commercial Vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurrences of jackknifing events.Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year.In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov. 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov. 1st, 2014 for all new vehicles), including Commercial Vehicles, Buses, Trucks and Trailers.On 2015, NHTSA published Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 136, Electronic Stability Control systems for heavy vehicles, requiring Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems on truck tractors and buses with a gross vehicle weight rating greater than 11,793 kilograms (26,000 pounds) for implementation in 2017.In South America, CONTRAN Resolution 641/2016 establishes mandatory installation of Electronic Stability and Rollover Control in Commercial…
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Braking with a Trailer and Mountain Pass Descent

General Motors LLC-David B. Antanaitis, Brent Lowe
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
A truly strange - but very interesting - juxtaposition of thought occurs when considering customer’s deceleration needs for towing heavy trailers in mountainous regions, and the seemingly very different area of sizing brakes for Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and other regenerative braking-intensive vehicle applications, versus brakes for heavy-duty trucks and other vehicles rated to tow heavy trailers. The common threads between these two very different categories of vehicles include (a) heavy dependence on the powertrain and other non-brake sources of energy loss to control the speed of the vehicle on the grade and ensure adequate capacity of the brake system, (b) a need to consider descent conditions where towing a heavy trailer is feasible (in the case of heavy trailer towing) or initiating a descent with a full state of charge is realistic (in the case of BEVs), which forces consideration of different descents versus the typical (for brake engineers) mountain peak descent. In this paper, a vehicle operator-based requirement is derived that integrates engine (or motor), transmission (or gearbox), driveline, brake system, brake cooling,…
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Truck and Bus Aerodynamic Device and Concept Terminology

Truck and Bus Aerodynamics and Fuel Economy Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2971_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-02 by SAE International in United States
This SAE J2971 Recommended Practice describes a standard naming convention of aerodynamic devices and technologies used to control aerodynamic forces on truck and buses weighing more than 10000 pounds (including trailers).
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