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Multi body dynamic simulation of tyre traction trailer

International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Gopal Singh Rathore
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2430
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Tyre Traction Trailer is a device designed to find the Peak Brake co-efficient of C2 and C3 tyre as per ECE R117. The trailer is towed by the truck and is braked suddenly to evaluate braking co-efficient of specimen tyre. It is a single wheel trailer equipped with load cell to capture tire loads (Normal and longitudinal)while braking. Traction Trailer is modelled in MSC Adams and rigid body simulation is carried out for static stability of the system. Dynamic simulations were performed to understand locking of wheels during braking. Body frame was further modelled as flex body to perform structural analysis of the frame. The paper contains stress and deformation plots of trailer Structure under various loading conditions, change in Centre of gravity, weight transfer and forces on springs during braking and cornering, plots of tractive and normal load on tyre during braking.

Analysis of the Tractor-Trailer Dynamics During Braking

Kharkov National Auto and Highway University-Mikhail Podrigalo, Dmytro Klets, Mykhailo Kholodov, Valeriy Klimenko, Anton Kholodov
Zhytomyr State Technological University-Volodymyr Rudzinskyi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2144
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The tractor-trailer dynamics during braking and the effect of the dynamic distribution of normal vertical reactions between the axles on the brake properties of tractor-trailer is considered. A mathematical model of the process of braking the tractor-trailer (consisting of a wheel tractor and a two-axle trailer), without blocking the wheels was obtained. The conditions for simultaneously bringing to the verge of blocking the wheels of the tractor, trailer and tractor-trailer, as a whole, are determined. Using mathematical modelling methods, method of determine braking conditions of a tractor-trailer without blocking the wheels and the danger of folding is proposed. Obtained analytical expressions, allowing to determine the total normal reactions on the axes of the tractor-trailer and reactions in the connecting hinge of the links between the tractor and the trailer. Also obtained analytical expressions, allowing to determine maximum value of deceleration reached during braking corresponding to the beginning of the early blocking of the wheels of any of the axes of tractor-trailer. Using the obtained mathematical model, the results of the simulation of tractor-trailer dynamics during…

Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Marco Andre Silva
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2141
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Analysis of road accident has showed that an important portion of fatal crashes involving commercial vehicles is caused by rollovers. ESC systems in commercial vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurences of jackknifing conditions. Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov 1st 2014 for all new vehicles), including commercial vehicles, trucks and trailers. On 2015, NHTSA published Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 136, Electronic stability control systems for heavy vehicles, requiring electronic stability control (ESC) systems on truck tractors and buses with a gross vehicle weight rating greater than 11,793 kilograms (26,000 pounds) that were implemented until 2017. In South America, CONTRAN Resolution 641/2016 establishes mandatory installation of Electronic Stability…

Braking with a Trailer and Mountain Pass Descent

General Motors LLC-David B. Antanaitis, Brent Lowe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2116
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
A truly strange - but very interesting - juxtaposition of thought occurs when considering customer’s deceleration needs for towing heavy trailers in mountainous regions, and the seemingly very different area of sizing brakes for Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and other regenerative braking-intensive vehicle applications, versus brakes for heavy-duty trucks and other vehicles rated to tow heavy trailers. The common threads between these two very different categories of vehicles include (a) heavy dependence on the powertrain and other non-brake sources of energy loss to control the speed of the vehicle on the grade and ensure adequate capacity of the brake system, (b) a need to consider descent conditions where towing a heavy trailer is feasible (in the case of heavy trailer towing) or initiating a descent with a full state of charge is realistic (in the case of BEVs), which forces consideration of different descents versus the typical (for brake engineers) mountain peak descent. In this paper, a vehicle operator-based requirement is derived that integrates engine (or motor), transmission (or gearbox), driveline, brake system, brake cooling,…

A Combination of Intelligent Tire and Vehicle Dynamic Based Algorithm to Estimate the Tire-Road Friction

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

NIO, USA-Omid Ghasemalizadeh
Texas State University, USA-Seyedmeysam Khaleghian
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0007
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
One of the most important factors affecting the performance of vehicle active chassis control systems is the tire-road friction coefficient. Accurate estimation of the friction coefficient can lead to better performance of these controllers. In this study, a new three-step friction estimation algorithm, based on intelligent tire concept, is proposed, which is a combination of experiment-based and vehicle dynamic based approaches. In the first step of the proposed algorithm, the normal load is estimated using a trained Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The network was trained using the experimental data collected using a portable tire testing trailer. In the second step of the algorithm, the tire forces and the wheel longitudinal velocity are estimated through a two-step Kalman filter. Then, in the last step, using the estimated tire normal load and longitudinal and lateral forces, the friction coefficient can be estimated. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, experiments were performed using the trailer test setup and friction was calculated using the measured forces. Good agreement was observed between the estimated and actual friction coefficients.
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Design and Optimization of a Robust Active Trailer Steering System for Car-Trailer Combinations

University of Ontario Institute of Technology-Mutaz Keldani, Khizar Qureshi, Yuping He, Ramiro Liscano
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a robust active trailer steering (ATS) controller for car-trailer combinations. ATS systems have been proposed and explored for improving the lateral stability and enhancing the path-following performance of car-trailer combinations. Most of the ATS controllers were designed using the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) technique. In the design of the LQR-based ATS controllers, it was assumed that all vehicle and operating parameters were constant. In reality, vehicle and operating parameters may vary, which may have an impact on the stability of the combination. For example, varied vehicle forward speed and trailer payload may impose negative impacts on the directional performance of the car-trailer combination. Thus, the robustness of the conventional LQR-based ATS controllers is questionable. To address this problem, we propose a gain-scheduling LQR-based ATS controller. In the design of the proposed ATS controller, at each operating point, the ATS controller is designed using the LQR technique. At an operating point between two established adjacent operating points, the control gain matrix of the controller is determined using an interpolation method. To further improve…
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Pickup Truck and Trailer Gross Vehicle Weight Study

Moustafa El-Gindy, Nam Nguyen
UOIT-Priya Shastry
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the dynamic performance of pickup truck - trailer configurations, using performance measures adopted by Commercial Vehicle Safety and Enforcement (CVSE). The pickup truck models are selected based on the US truck classification that segregates trucks on the basis of the vehicle’s gross vehicle weight ratings (GVWR). Three different types of trailers - gooseneck trailer, pintle hook trailer and three-axle trailer with parametric hitch - are utilized in this study. The truck-trailer configurations will be evaluated for static rollover threshold, load transfer ratio, rearward amplification, friction demand, lateral friction utilization, high speed, low speed and transient off tracking and three-point handling performance. These measures are based on definitions from Canada’s heavy vehicle weights and dimensions study. Payload weights and trailers are selected based on the current British Columbia regulations, maximum towing capacity of each pickup truck, and their maximum drive axle loads. The main purpose of this analysis is to computationally evaluate the stability and controllability of these vehicle configurations in a virtual environment at both low and…
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An Investigation of the Influence of Close-Proximity Traffic on the Aerodynamic Drag Experienced by Tractor-Trailer Combinations

National Research Council Canada-Brian McAuliffe, Mojtaba Ahmadi-Baloutaki
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Recent research to investigate the aerodynamic-drag reduction associated with truck platooning systems has begun to reveal that surrounding traffic has a measurable impact on the aerodynamic performance of heavy trucks. A 1/15-scale wind-tunnel study was undertaken to measure changes to the aerodynamic drag experienced by heavy trucks in the presence of upstream traffic. The results, which are based on traffic conditions with up to 5 surrounding vehicles in a 2-lane configuration and consisting of 3 vehicle shapes (compact sedans, SUVs, and a medium-duty truck), show drag reductions of 1% to 16% for the heavy truck model, with the largest reductions of the same order as those experienced in a truck-platooning scenario. The data also reveal that the performance of drag-reduction technologies applied to the heavy-truck model (trailer side-skirts and a boat-tail) demonstrate different performance when applied to an isolated vehicle than to conditions with surrounding traffic. The results suggest that vehicle shape optimization strategies may differ if the influence of wake effects from surrounding traffic is included in product development cycles. Additionally, truck-platooning benefits should…
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2019 Ram Chassis Cab: More capability, more driver-assist tech

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: April 2019

Kami Buchholz
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP04_12
Published 2019-04-01 by SAE International in United States

The 2019 Ram 3500, 4500, and 5500 Chassis Cab commercial trucks herald class-leading capability in towing, payload, and Gross Combined Weight Ratings (GCWR). “We drove our engineers bonkers to get the very best,” quipped Jim Morrison, head of Ram Brand at FCA North America.

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2020 Ford Super Duty debuts all-new OHV V8

Automotive Engineering: March 2019

Kami Buchholz
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP03_17
Published 2019-03-01 by SAE International in United States

The 2020 Ford F-Series Super Duty will arrive with the heavy-duty pickup truck's best-ever conventional, gooseneck, and fifth-wheel trailer towing and payload ratings. “What makes these highest-ever ratings possible is our strongest-yet Super Duty powertrain offerings,” said Dave Filipe, Ford VP of global powertrain during the 2020 F-Series Super Duty's January 30 debut in Detroit.

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