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Multi body dynamic simulation of tyre traction trailer

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Gopal Singh Rathore
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2430
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Tyre Traction Trailer is a device designed to find the Peak Brake co-efficient of C2 and C3 tyre as per ECE R117. The trailer is towed by the truck and is braked suddenly to evaluate braking co-efficient of specimen tyre. It is a single wheel trailer equipped with load cell to capture tire loads (Normal and longitudinal)while braking. Traction Trailer is modelled in MSC Adams and rigid body simulation is carried out for static stability of the system. Dynamic simulations were performed to understand locking of wheels during braking. Body frame was further modelled as flex body to perform structural analysis of the frame. The paper contains stress and deformation plots of trailer Structure under various loading conditions, change in Centre of gravity, weight transfer and forces on springs during braking and cornering, plots of tractive and normal load on tyre during braking.
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A Heavy Tractor Semi-Trailer Stability Control Strategy Based on Electronic Pneumatic Braking System HIL Test

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and Control, Jilin University, China-Hongyu Zheng, Yangyang Miao
United States-Bin Li
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-03-0016
Published 2019-10-15 by SAE International in United States
Aiming to improve the handling performance of heavy tractor semi-trailer during turning or changing lanes at high speed, a hierarchical structure controller is proposed and a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench of the electronic pneumatic braking system is developed to validate the proposed controller. In the upper controller, a Kalman filter observer based on the heavy tractor semi-trailer dynamic model is used to estimate the yaw rates and sideslip angles of the tractor and trailer. Simultaneously, a sliding mode direct yaw moment controller is developed, which takes the estimated yaw rates and sideslip angles and the reference values calculated by the three-degrees-of-freedom dynamic model of the heavy tractor semi-trailer as the control inputs. In the lower controller, the additional yaw moments of tractor and trailer are transformed into corresponding wheel braking forces according to the current steering characteristics. The HIL test bench of the electronic pneumatic braking system is built to verify the effectiveness of the strategy. Double lane-change maneuver, sinusoidal maneuver, and J-turn maneuver are selected as handling and stability test conditions. The LabView real-time…
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Antilock Brake Systems Energy Consumption Test Procedure for Air-Brake-Equipped Truck Tractors, Buses, Trailers, and Dollies

Truck and Bus Brake Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2255_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Recommended Practice provides instructions and test procedures for measuring air consumption of air braked vehicles equipped with Antilock Brake Systems (ABS) used on highways.

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Analysis of the Tractor-Trailer Dynamics during Braking

Kharkov National Auto and Highway University-Mikhail Podrigalo, Dmytro Klets, Mykhailo Kholodov, Valeriy Klimenko, Anton Kholodov
Zhytomyr State Technological University-Volodymyr Rudzinskyi
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The intensive development of tractor-building industry in the world has led to the widespread use of wheeled tractors and tractor trains in transportations on public highways. This requires an increase of engine capacity and speed of tractor trains, as well as strict demands for their braking systems.The formation of the necessary braking properties of wheeled tractors and tractor trains on their basis should be carried out at the design phase, taking into account a wide range of aggregated machines and tools.Blocking the wheels of the trailer with different sequence of their blocking and blocking the wheels of the tractor has significant impact on the total braking force, deceleration and stability of the tractor train. It is advisable to take this into account when modeling the braking process of a tractor train.The article deals with the braking dynamics of the tractor train and the impact of the dynamic distribution of normal reactions between the axles on the brake properties of the tractor train. The mathematical model of the braking process of the tractor-trailer train (consisting of…
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Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Marco Andre Silva
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Analysis of road accidents has shown that an important portion of fatal crashes involving Commercial Vehicles are caused by rollovers.ESC systems in Commercial Vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurrences of jackknifing events.Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year.In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov. 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov. 1st, 2014 for all new vehicles), including Commercial Vehicles, Buses, Trucks and Trailers.On 2015, NHTSA published Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 136, Electronic Stability Control systems for heavy vehicles, requiring Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems on truck tractors and buses with a gross vehicle weight rating greater than 11,793 kilograms (26,000 pounds) for implementation in 2017.In South America, CONTRAN Resolution 641/2016 establishes mandatory installation of Electronic Stability and Rollover Control in Commercial…
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Braking with a Trailer and Mountain Pass Descent

General Motors LLC-David B. Antanaitis, Brent Lowe
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
A truly strange - but very interesting - juxtaposition of thought occurs when considering customer’s deceleration needs for towing heavy trailers in mountainous regions, and the seemingly very different area of sizing brakes for Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and other regenerative braking-intensive vehicle applications, versus brakes for heavy-duty trucks and other vehicles rated to tow heavy trailers. The common threads between these two very different categories of vehicles include (a) heavy dependence on the powertrain and other non-brake sources of energy loss to control the speed of the vehicle on the grade and ensure adequate capacity of the brake system, (b) a need to consider descent conditions where towing a heavy trailer is feasible (in the case of heavy trailer towing) or initiating a descent with a full state of charge is realistic (in the case of BEVs), which forces consideration of different descents versus the typical (for brake engineers) mountain peak descent. In this paper, a vehicle operator-based requirement is derived that integrates engine (or motor), transmission (or gearbox), driveline, brake system, brake cooling,…
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Truck and Bus Aerodynamic Device and Concept Terminology

Truck and Bus Aerodynamics and Fuel Economy Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2971_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-02 by SAE International in United States
This SAE J2971 Recommended Practice describes a standard naming convention of aerodynamic devices and technologies used to control aerodynamic forces on truck and buses weighing more than 10000 pounds (including trailers).
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A Combination of Intelligent Tire and Vehicle Dynamic Based Algorithm to Estimate the Tire-Road Friction

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

NIO, USA-Omid Ghasemalizadeh
Texas State University, USA-Seyedmeysam Khaleghian
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0007
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
One of the most important factors affecting the performance of vehicle active chassis control systems is the tire-road friction coefficient. Accurate estimation of the friction coefficient can lead to better performance of these controllers. In this study, a new three-step friction estimation algorithm, based on intelligent tire concept, is proposed, which is a combination of experiment-based and vehicle dynamic based approaches. In the first step of the proposed algorithm, the normal load is estimated using a trained Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The network was trained using the experimental data collected using a portable tire testing trailer. In the second step of the algorithm, the tire forces and the wheel longitudinal velocity are estimated through a two-step Kalman filter. Then, in the last step, using the estimated tire normal load and longitudinal and lateral forces, the friction coefficient can be estimated. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, experiments were performed using the trailer test setup and friction was calculated using the measured forces. Good agreement was observed between the estimated and actual friction coefficients.
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Design and Optimization of a Robust Active Trailer Steering System for Car-Trailer Combinations

University of Ontario Institute of Technology-Mutaz Keldani, Khizar Qureshi, Yuping He, Ramiro Liscano
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a robust active trailer steering (ATS) controller for car-trailer combinations. ATS systems have been proposed and explored for improving the lateral stability and enhancing the path-following performance of car-trailer combinations. Most of the ATS controllers were designed using the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) technique. In the design of the LQR-based ATS controllers, it was assumed that all vehicle and operating parameters were constant. In reality, vehicle and operating parameters may vary, which may have an impact on the stability of the combination. For example, varied vehicle forward speed and trailer payload may impose negative impacts on the directional performance of the car-trailer combination. Thus, the robustness of the conventional LQR-based ATS controllers is questionable. To address this problem, we propose a gain-scheduling LQR-based ATS controller. In the design of the proposed ATS controller, at each operating point, the ATS controller is designed using the LQR technique. At an operating point between two established adjacent operating points, the control gain matrix of the controller is determined using an interpolation method. To further improve…
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Pickup Truck and Trailer Gross Vehicle Weight Study

Moustafa El-Gindy, Nam Nguyen
UOIT-Priya Shastry
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the dynamic performance of pickup truck - trailer configurations, using performance measures adopted by Commercial Vehicle Safety and Enforcement (CVSE). The pickup truck models are selected based on the US truck classification that segregates trucks on the basis of the vehicle’s gross vehicle weight ratings (GVWR). Three different types of trailers - gooseneck trailer, pintle hook trailer and three-axle trailer with parametric hitch - are utilized in this study. The truck-trailer configurations will be evaluated for static rollover threshold, load transfer ratio, rearward amplification, friction demand, lateral friction utilization, high speed, low speed and transient off tracking and three-point handling performance. These measures are based on definitions from Canada’s heavy vehicle weights and dimensions study. Payload weights and trailers are selected based on the current British Columbia regulations, maximum towing capacity of each pickup truck, and their maximum drive axle loads. The main purpose of this analysis is to computationally evaluate the stability and controllability of these vehicle configurations in a virtual environment at both low and…
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