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Optimizing CAN Bus Security with In-Place Cryptography

Karamba Security-Assaf Harel
University of Connecticut-Amir Hezberg
Published 2019-01-16 by SAE International in United States
Today’s vehicles rely on multiple interconnected networks of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) that govern almost every automotive function - from engine timing and traction control to side-mirror adjustment and GPS. In-vehicle networks used for inter-ECU communication, most commonly the CAN bus, were not designed with cybersecurity in mind, and as a result, communication by corrupt devices connected to the bus is not authenticated.A multitude of attack vectors allow attackers to control a device on the bus; reports abound of successful hacking of vehicles, by exploiting vulnerable devices and by spoofing messages.Such remote-connectivity and physical-access exploit types must be prevented, to mitigate the threats of impersonation, eavesdropping, replay and reversing.We present the IVAS, In-Vehicle Authentication Scheme. IVAS is an in-place cryptographic scheme: the first CAN messaging solution to ensure both authentication and confidentiality without additional data such as authentication tags.When adequate encryption is used, an adversary’s chances of successfully injecting a spoofed message are equal to the chances for a random message. There is a need for a validation method that deterministically differentiates between random messages…
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Recommended Practice for Identification of Standardized Truck and Tractor Electrical Circuits

Truck and Bus Electrical Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2191_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-08 by SAE International in United States
This SAE document defines a recommended practice for implementing circuit identification for electrical power and signal distribution systems of the Class 8 trucks and tractors. This document provides a description of a supplemental circuit identifier that shall be utilized in conjunction with the original equipment manufacturer’s primary circuit identification as used in wire harnesses but does not include electrical or electronic devices which have pigtails. The supplemental circuit identifier is cross-referenced to a specified subsystem of the power and signal distribution system identified in Section 5.
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Summary of Stop Lamp-Related Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and NHTSA Interpretations, Relative to ATC, Stability Control Interventions, Engine Retarders/Exhaust Brakes

Truck and Bus Brake Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2963_201810
  • Current
Published 2018-10-02 by SAE International in United States
Provide previous stop light activation research into single document for future reference. Relevant documents and interpretations noted in Table 1.
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Design Specification for Towbarless Tow Vehicles

AGE-3 Aircraft Ground Support Equipment Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP4853D
  • Current
Published 2018-09-19 by SAE International in United States
The tow vehicle should be designed for towbarless movement of aircraft on the ground. The design will ensure that the unit will safely secure the aircraft nose landing gear within the coupling system for any operational mode.
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Modeling Cruise Control Initiated Wheelspin in Rear Wheel Drive Vehicles

Metz Engineering and Racing, LLC-L. Daniel Metz
Published 2018-05-04 by SAE International in United States
There are driving situations in which a rear-wheel-drive vehicle, operating with an active closed-loop cruise control, can experience wheelspin and a subsequent oversteer/loss of control. The situations involve low-μ surfaces (ice), weather-related phenomenon (rear-wheel hydroplaning), slope-climbing or a combination of these external effects. Although traction control and stability control, depending on the sophistication of the system, can negate many of these situations, the active fleet contains many vehicles not equipped with these features. In the present work, we calculate the conditions under which cruise-control-initiated rear wheel spin can occur.
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All-Wheel Drive Systems Classification

Drivetrain Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1952_201804
  • Current
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
In this SAE Recommended Practice, attention will be given to passenger cars and light trucks (through Class III).
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An Analysis of EDR Data in Kawasaki Ninja ZX-6R and ZX-10R Motorcycles Equipped with ABS (KIBS) and Traction Control (KTRC)

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Edward Fatzinger, Jon Landerville
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Electronic control units (ECU) from Kawasaki Ninja ZX-6R and ZX-10R motorcycles were tested in order to examine the capabilities and behavior of the event data recorders (EDR). All relevant hexadecimal data was downloaded from the ECU and translated using known and historically proven applications. The hexadecimal translations were then confirmed using data acquisition systems as well as the Kawasaki Diagnostic Software (KDS)1. Numerous tests were performed to establish the algorithms which cause the EDR to record data. Issues of sensor and power loss were analyzed and discussed. Additionally, data sets were studied that involved maximum deceleration from ABS brakes. Similarly, data sets that involved traction control intervention were studied and analyzed.It was determined that the EDR recording ‘trigger’ was caused by the activation of the tip-over sensor, which in turn shuts the engine off. However, specific conditions must be met with regards to the rear wheel rotation prior to engine shut-down. An EDR event was only recorded if the motorcycle was commanded to shut-down by the tip-over sensor, and either had rear wheel movement at…
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Automotive Stability Enhancement Systems

Vehicle Dynamics Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2564_201711
  • Current
Published 2017-11-14 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to describe currently known automotive active stability enhancement systems, as well as identify common names which can be used to refer to the various systems and common features and functions of the various systems. The primary systems discussed are: a ABS - Antilock Brake Systems b TCS - Traction Control Systems c ESC - Electronic Stability Control The document is technical in nature and attempts to remain neutral regarding unique features that individual system or vehicle manufacturers may provide.
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Proposal for Improving the Performance of Longitudinal Acceleration of a Land Vehicle

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Bruno Silva de Lima, Rafael Megale de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando de Oliveira Moraes, Gustavo Abreu Araújo, Gabriel Mendes de Almeida Carvalho
Published 2017-11-07 by SAE International in United States
The present study introduces a proposal to improve the longitudinal performance of a land vehicle through the adoption of an unusual traction control system. The system is capable of improving the transfer of engine power to the ground and reduces the complexity of the task being performed by the driver. High-performance vehicles are able to achieve high levels of longitudinal acceleration and, sometimes, the power excess leads to the spinoff of the drive wheels, which decrease the ability of the tires to generate force, and consequently the vehicle acceleration.The proposed system acts in addition with the motor control, through the derivation of the motor speed signal, and its control by comparison with a predefined value. The control can delay or even suppress the ignition of the engine. Thus, the rate at which the engine gains speed, and consequently, the rate at which the vehicle accelerates, is limited. The benefits of the system are the low cost and the ease of application in a modern vehicle.
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THE NAVIGATOR

Automotive Engineering: October 2017

Sam Abuelsamid
  • Magazine Article
  • 17AUTP10_07
Published 2017-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Time for standard naming of safety features

Smart cruise control. Intelligent cruise control. Adaptive cruise control. Radar speed control. As The Bard wrote so long ago, “A rose by any other name would smell as sweet.” Sadly that tale did not end well for the protagonists.

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