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A Development and Evaluation of Optimal Fingerprint Authentication Algorithm in Vehicle Use Environment

Hyundai Motor Co & KIA Motors Corp-dae sung jin, Jungduck Son, Sangwoo Jeon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0723
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hyundai Motor Company mass-produced the world's first fingerprint entry and start system. This paper is a study on the evaluation method to develop and verify the optimal fingerprint authentication algorithm for vehicle usage conditions. Currently, fingerprint sensors and algorithms in the IT industry have been developed for the electronic devices, and are not suitable for the harsh environment of the vehicle and the vehicle life cycle for more than 10 years. In order to optimize the fingerprint sensor and algorithm for the vehicle, this study consisted of 3way test methods. As a result, the fingerprint system could be optimized for the vehicle and the recognition rate and security could be optimized according to the sensor authentication level. Through this study, the fingerprint entry and start system achieved the recognition rate development goal (door handle sensor recognition rate: 85% or more, start button sensor recognition rate: 90% or more) and achieved security that meets European immobilizer regulation
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A New Testing Method to Evaluate Edge Cracking With Considerations of The Shear Clearance and Press Speed

EWI Inc.-Jiahui Gu, Hyunok Kim
EWI,Inc-Laura Zoller
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0758
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As the automotive industry increasingly adopts the more use of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) for the vehicle light-weighting and crashworthiness, the edge cracking issue continuously increases in stamping AHSS. Different lab-scale test methods such as the ISO standard hole-expansion test and the half specimen dome test are available to evaluate edge formability. However, none of these lab-scale testing methods fully considers production conditions such as various shear clearances, part complexity, and shearing speed associated with the mechanical or hydraulic press operation. To address these limitations of the available testing methods, a new punching and stamping test was developed. This paper introduces the simulation and experimental approach in developing this unique testing method to design the peanut-shaped hole that is the most sensitive to edge cracking in stamping. Three different sheet materials, DP780, 980 GEN3, and aluminum 6022-T4 were tested to validate the reliability of the newly developed testing method. Selected materials were punched with two different shear clearances between 10~20% that are commonly used for industrial applications. Also, two different press motions, conventional mechanical…
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NHTSA's 2018 Heavy Vehicle Automatic Emergency Braking Test Track Research Results

NHTSA-Devin Elsasser
Transportation Research Center Inc-M. Kamel Salaani, Christopher Boday
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1001
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s 2017 and 2018 test track research results with heavy vehicles equipped with forward collision warning and automatic emergency braking systems. Newly developed objective test procedures were used to perform and collect performance data with three single-unit trucks equipped with the crash avoidance systems. The results of this research show that the test procedures are applicable to many heavy vehicles and indicate that performance improvements in heavy vehicles equipped with these safety systems can be objectively measured.
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The development of JASO GLV-1 -Next Generation Low Viscosity automotive Gasoline Engine Oils Specification

Infineum Japan Ltd-Taisuke Miyoshi
JXTG Nippon Oil & Energy Corp.-satoru yoshida
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1426
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
It is a common understanding that reducing engine oil viscosity has a great effect on improving fuel economy. However, it has been impossible to evaluate ultra low viscosity engine oil below SAE 0W-12 utilizing the existing fuel economy test method and there is no specification for ultra low viscosity gasoline engine oil. Therefore, we developed firing and motored fuel economy test methods using Japanese automobile manufactures’ engines for ultra low viscosity oil at the Task Force (hereafter called TF) mainly consist of Japanese automobile and petroleum industry. Furthermore, the TF developed JASO GLV-1 specification including these fuel economy tests for next generation ultra low viscosity automotive gasoline engine oils such as SAE 0W-8 and 0W-12. In development of JASO GLV-1 specification, Japanese fuel economy tests and ILSAC engine tests for engine robustness evaluation were used. The fuel economy and engine robustness tests of four reference oils (two of them were SAE 0W-8 and others were SAE 0W-16) and three demonstration oils (SAE 0W-8) were evaluated to examine whether it was possible to evaluate SAE 0W-8…
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Generalized Maxwell Model Parameter Estimation of a Viscoelastic Material from High Frequency Direct Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) Test

The University of Akron-Roja Esmaeeli, Haniph Aliniagerdroudbari, Siamak Farhad
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1074
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Polymers as viscoelastic material grab a grate attention in industry due to their high strength, light weight and low manufacturing cost. Therefore, studying the properties of polymers has a great importance. In several applications the analytical tools are used to simulate the situation due to its lower cost and time consumption than experiments. In order to simulate the viscoelastic material properties in analytical tools, theoretical models such as such as Generalized Maxwell Model (GMM) are used. Usually the viscoelastic constitutive parameters for GMM are calculated by fitting the model to the master curve obtain from a Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) test. DMA is a testing method for viscoelastic material characterization by applying the stress or strain to a viscoelastic material and measure the response. Commercial DMAs are not able to operate accurately at high frequency thus they use the time temperature superposition principle and Williams, Landel and Ferry (WLF) shift factor to obtain the high frequency results from the low frequency tests. Several limitations and problems for the WLF equation are reported. The procedure of…
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Testing of a wet plate clutch system for anti-shudder performance

Afton Chemical Corp.-Philippe Ezanno
BorgWarner Automotive-Jason Bares
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0560
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The wet clutch system ( WCS ) is a complex combination of friction plates, separator plates and lubricant. The basic function of the WCS is to transfer torque under various operating conditions such as slipping, shifting, start/launch and/or torque converter clutch operation. During these conditions the slope of the coefficient of friction versus slip speed ( µ-V ) curve must be positive to prevent shudder of the WCS. A test procedure is needed to evaluate the WCS over a durability duty cycle to monitor the µ-V curve slope and shudder potential. The clutch plates and fluid must be tested together and remain together during the test to evaluate as a WCS. The objective of this paper is to describe this new test procedure which builds on the basics of the SAE J2964 - Low Speed Continuous Slip µ-PVT test procedure but a duty cycle is added to age the WCS. The test includes measurement of the µ-V slope at several intervals during the test ( before break in, after break in, and after each 12…
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An Experimental Methodology for Measuring Resistance Forces of Light-Duty Vehicles under Real-World Conditions and the Impact on Fuel Consumption

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Dimitrios Komnos, Leonidas Ntziachristos
European Commission Joint Research-Georgios Fontaras, Jelica Pavlovic, Biagio Ciuffo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0383
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A key element of any vehicle-certification test is the use of representative values for the vehicle resistance forces. In most certification procedures, including the WLTP recently adopted by the EU, the latter is achieved mainly through coast down tests. Subsequently, the resistance values measured are used for setting up the chassis-dyno resistances applied during the laboratory measurements. These reference values are obtained under controlled conditions, while a series of corrections are applied to make the test procedure more repeatable and reproducible. In real driving, the reference road loads are influenced by a series of factors leading to a divergence between the certified fuel consumption values, and the real-world ones. An approach of calculating representative road loads during on-road tests can help to obtain a clearer view of vehicle efficiency and quickly validate the officially declared road loads. This approach is crucial also for validating simulations and achieving better estimates of the actual fuel consumption, a requirement introduced by the new policy adopted in the EU. In this direction, a series of on-road experiments were conducted,…
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Virtual Validation Method for Automated Driving Vehicles base on Traffic Accident

China Automotive Technology and Research-zhang shan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0705
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Virtual Validation Method for Automated Driving Vehicles base on Traffic Accident Zhang Shan , Shi Juan, Guo Kuiyuan CATARC Automotive Test Center (Tianjin) Co., Ltd, Tianjin 300300 [Abstract] With the advancement in automatic driving technology, testing methods-such as road test for conventional automatic is difficult to verify the safety and reliability of automatic driving vehicles. Virtual testing method has become an important mean due to the technical superiority of test efficiency and time consumption. This paper selects a highway traffic accident from China In-Depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database and analyzes the accident cause; Builds the traffic accident scenario in virtual simulation software-CarMaker, including actual road environment information, ego vehicle and other traffic participants maneuver and so on; then take a hardware-in-the-loop(HIL) testing, and the ACC and AEB control system based on radar simulator is used to test the ability of the ADAS system of respond to traffic accident scenario. Testing result shows that the ADAS system can reduce the likelihood of collision. Testing process verifies the feasibility of virtual test that verify the functionality of…
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Different methods to improve the exhaust gas temperature in modern stage V off-road diesel engine over transient emission cycles.

Turku University of Applied Sciences-Mika Lauren, Toomas Karhu, Miika Laivola, Jan Ekman
University Of Vaasa-Seppo Niemi, Kirsi Spoof-Tuomi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0903
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents several methods to improve the exhaust gas temperature of a modern diesel engine. A high exhaust gas temperature is needed to improve the after-treatment system efficiency and particulate filter regeneration in low engine loads. This study is based on experimental measurements of a Stage 5 level off-road diesel engine. The effect of the different heating methods determined over steady state runs and emission and performance are presented with standard emission transient test procedure (NRTC). In the first step of the study, an intake air restriction and an exhaust gas restriction method are compared. The intake restriction produces better fuel economy over the measuring cycle. However, with the exhaust restriction, higher exhaust gas temperature can be achieved in low engine loads. In the second phase of study, the intake air restriction method was implemented in the research engine. In addition, active waste gate controlling and injection retardation methods were taken in use for heating purposes. The engine performance was determined with normal calibration and with high exhaust temperature calibration. The differences to the…
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A Deterministic Multivariate Clustering Method for Drive Cycle Generation from in-use Vehicle Data

US Dept of Energy-Adam Duran
US Dept. of Energy-Eric Miller
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1045
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Understanding vehicle drive cycles plays a fundamental role in assessing the performance of new vehicle technologies, leading to more informed decision making, better test procedures, more successful designs, and lower manufacturing and operating expenses. With continued growth in the deployment of onboard telematics systems employing global positioning systems (GPS), large scale collection of real world vehicle drive cycle data has become a reality. With the vast sea of data now available due to improvements in technology, and limitations in terms of resources available for testing and simulation, the need exists for a means of generating representative cycles reflective of collected real world drive cycles. This paper explores the development and initial validation of a method of generating representative drive cycles from large collections of real world vehicle data using a deterministic multivariate clustering approach. Starting with theory and diving into the methodology behind representative cycle generation, the paper aims to also present graphical and tabular results of initial validation via vehicle simulation and chassis dynamometer testing. Additional topics for further research and areas for ongoing…