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Industry 4.0 in Agriculture

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Vishal Eknath Kirve
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2442
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In recent times, there has been an enormous shift towards automation in Auto as well as Agriculture Industry. Farming is playing an important role in the survival of world. Currently, agricultural industry is facing several challenges. These challenges can be reduced or removed by using automation in the agricultural tools and techniques. Industry 4.0 is the industrial fourth revolution which focused on automations in manufacturing technologies such as cyber physical systems, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence and cloud and cognitive computing. The development and improvement of the connectivity between agricultural tools is leading to significant progress in the agricultural practices. Advancement and automation of the technologies with Internet of Things (IoT), replacing traditional agricultural methodologies which causes wide range of improvements in the fields. The main purpose of this paper is focused on the review of basic concept of Industry 4.0, the number of new tools and techniques used by smart agriculture for the improvement in the fields and the list of benefits of smart agricultural solutions. Smart Agriculture is using advanced technologies such as…
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Correlation of Noise Emitted by vehicle on an External Pass-By Noise Track and Indoor Anechoic Chamber

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Ikshit Shrivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2425
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Ikshit Shrivastava1, Kiranpreet Singh2 1,2 International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT), Gurugram, India Introduction: Pass By Noise emitted by the vehicle is one of the most critical tests for certification is vehicle worldwide. There are a number of national and international regulations to define test procedure. Though the available tracks are constructed to meet the requirements of these test standards, but there are other external parameters viz. ambient temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and its direction, affecting the measurements. These parameters are beyond the control of human and this contamination of test data results in longer test time to monitor atmospheric/ambient conditions and perform the test. Indoor pass-by noise testing is a comparatively new method of testing, which is yet to be evaluated for repeatability/correlation with conventional exterior pass-by noise testing. Objective: This paper aims to establish a correlation between exterior pass-by noise testing and indoor pass-by noise testing. This correlation will serve to establish a foundation for future developments in automobiles; and, evaluate the use of indoor pass-by noise testing as an acceptable alternative…
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Inspection and Maintenance of In-Use Motor Vehicles – Mitigating Environmental impact

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Vijayanta Ahuja, Aditya Gautam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2427
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The existing rule no. 62 of CMVR, 1989 applies to various commercial vehicles and yet is unable to provide a promising template to have a concise format which will cover all the motor vehicles and their different components with more precise equipment plus virtual testing along with proper management of time during the bulk inspection of all the vehicles. This paper will include all the technicalities and the different course of actions which must be taken into account for the proper implementation of the desired regulations on the designated concern. The idea behind this paper is to have a compact procedural document for the periodical inspection and maintenance of all the motor vehicles running on the Indian Roads that adhere to the basic safety concerns of other on-road vehicles, the pedestrians and the surroundings. Concluding the fact that there are various aspects of environmental degradation henceforth we start by picking one of the hazards trying to execute a method to resolve every respective issue on a micro level, thus eliminating maximum threats onto the environment.…
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Potential for Emission Reduction and Fuel Economy with Micro & Mild HEV

AVL List GmbH-Franz Murr, Ernst Winklhofer, Michael Weissbaeck, Gerald Teuschl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2504
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas aftertreatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost. With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost-efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented or simulated vehicle concepts for light duty gasoline and diesel powertrains. The focus will be on solutions which have potential for the Indian market, i.e. solutions which can be implemented with moderate application effort for currently available compact and medium size cars. The possibilities of 12/24 & 48V technologies for fuel economy and emission reduction will be discussed. Simultaneously, tools for testing and calibration at power train testbed…
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Design Analysis and Development of High-Speed Rotating Fatigue Testing with Integrated by Twisting Test

Avinash Prakash Barve, Rahul Jangam, Adm Aman Soni, Pravin Pandagre, Hardik Bhautkar, Bhushan Chapke, Shantanu Bankar, Faisal Hussain, Adm Paresh Setiya
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0053
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The fatigue testing machine mostly used for industrial or laboratory applications are limited to performing single fatigue tests with high leading cost. In the present paper the experimental setup of the traditional fatigue testing machine is integrated with torsional test, to experimentally study the effect of fluctuating stresses on the material under service. In contradiction to earlier machines, the machine herein developed provides uniform bending and twisting moment distribution along the length of the test specimen. The machine performs fatigue test and torsional test, which provides the extreme force needed to understand the properties and behavior of materials. The machine consists of an electric motor to provide the required torque and two circular arms with adjustable chucks to fit test samples of various sizes. The machine provides computerized data for failed samples with data pertaining to each sample. The experimental model is designed and fabricated to match our customers unique test objective. Fatigue failures are reported 75% of documented materials failure and occur catastrophically. Fatigue life can be tested on loading conditions and it is…
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Design of Light Weight Hydraulic Connecting Rod for Agricultural Tractor

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Mahendra Dumpa, Solairaj Perumal, Dinesh Redkar, Maxson Gomes, Prasanna Balaji Subbaiyan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0016
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induce extreme range of loads on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Hydraulic connecting rod is critical component of hydraulic power train assembly. Standards like IS12224, IS4468 governs the design of hydraulic power train components which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of the tractor.In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design a hydraulic connecting rod to meet the requirements. The hydraulic connecting rod basically functions as a short load transferring link, which is subjected to the operating hydraulic pressure of the hydraulic lifting mechanism. The current circular connecting rod is higher in weight and cost. So, there is scope for optimizing the design of connecting rod. Virtual simulation has been done by performing (i) Multi body dynamics analysis (MBD) approach is used to predict the loads on…
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Premium Buses Airconditioning System Development and Verification

Volvo Buses-Ganesh Kowndinya, Asish Mohanty
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0020
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Airconditioning has become a prominent picture in premium segment buses over a decade of time. It has undergone many changes as and when the demand for passenger comfort in public transport industry has raised. Airconditioning is a critical topic influencing the passenger comfort in most of the mass transit vehicles. Transit buses operate in diversified weather conditions especially in country like India across the year, which impose challenge to a single airconditioning system fitted onto bus to provide right airconditioning so the passenger comfort will not be compromised. Airconditioning system has positively increased the comfort level of passengers irrespective of hauling distance or its application for city or intercity transits. Selecting a right airconditioning system for bus application plays a major role in addressing the passenger comfort topic in a broader perspective. This paper discuss on those important area’s which directly impacts the passenger comfort in transit application. This paper discuss in detail onto different stages in airconditioning system selection process, development methods and verification process to evaluate the system against stated requirement while keeping…
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Antilock Brake Systems Energy Consumption Test Procedure for Air-Brake-Equipped Truck Tractors, Buses, Trailers, and Dollies

Truck and Bus Brake Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2255_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Recommended Practice provides instructions and test procedures for measuring air consumption of air braked vehicles equipped with Antilock Brake Systems (ABS) used on highways.

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Analysis of the Impact of the WLTP Procedure on CO2 Emissions of Passenger Cars

European Commission Joint Research-Biagio Ciuffo, Georgios Fontaras
Politecnico di Torino-Giuseppe DiPierro, Federico Millo, Claudio Cubito
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Until 2017 in Europe the Type Approval (TA) procedure for light duty vehicles for the determination of pollutant emissions and fuel consumption was based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), a test cycle performed on a chassis dynamometer. However several studies highlighted significant discrepancies in terms of CO2 emissions between the TA test and the real world, due to the limited representativeness of the test procedure. Therefore, the European authorities decided to introduce a new, up-to date, test procedure capable to closer represent real world driving conditions, called Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). This work aims to analyze the effects of the new WLTP on vehicle CO2 emissions through both experimental and simulation investigations on two different Euro 5 vehicles, a petrol and a diesel car, representatives of average European passenger cars. The study also considers the effect of the engine warm-up and the impact of the start-stop technology in this new TA scenario. Since the WLTP imposes higher test mass and Road Loads (RLs), as well as higher driving cycle dynamics,…
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Tests for Snowmobile Switching Devices and Components

Snowmobile Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J68_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Recommended Practice covers standardized basic tests, test methods, and requirements applicable to electromechanical switching devices which may be used on snowmobiles as defined in SAE J33.