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Industry 4.0 in Agriculture

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Vishal Eknath Kirve
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2442
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In recent times, there has been an enormous shift towards automation in Auto as well as Agriculture Industry. Farming is playing an important role in the survival of world. Currently, agricultural industry is facing several challenges. These challenges can be reduced or removed by using automation in the agricultural tools and techniques. Industry 4.0 is the industrial fourth revolution which focused on automations in manufacturing technologies such as cyber physical systems, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence and cloud and cognitive computing. The development and improvement of the connectivity between agricultural tools is leading to significant progress in the agricultural practices. Advancement and automation of the technologies with Internet of Things (IoT), replacing traditional agricultural methodologies which causes wide range of improvements in the fields. The main purpose of this paper is focused on the review of basic concept of Industry 4.0, the number of new tools and techniques used by smart agriculture for the improvement in the fields and the list of benefits of smart agricultural solutions. Smart Agriculture is using advanced technologies such as…
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Correlation of Noise Emitted by vehicle on an External Pass-By Noise Track and Indoor Anechoic Chamber

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Ikshit Shrivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2425
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Ikshit Shrivastava1, Kiranpreet Singh2 1,2 International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT), Gurugram, India Introduction: Pass By Noise emitted by the vehicle is one of the most critical tests for certification is vehicle worldwide. There are a number of national and international regulations to define test procedure. Though the available tracks are constructed to meet the requirements of these test standards, but there are other external parameters viz. ambient temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and its direction, affecting the measurements. These parameters are beyond the control of human and this contamination of test data results in longer test time to monitor atmospheric/ambient conditions and perform the test. Indoor pass-by noise testing is a comparatively new method of testing, which is yet to be evaluated for repeatability/correlation with conventional exterior pass-by noise testing. Objective: This paper aims to establish a correlation between exterior pass-by noise testing and indoor pass-by noise testing. This correlation will serve to establish a foundation for future developments in automobiles; and, evaluate the use of indoor pass-by noise testing as an acceptable alternative…
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Inspection and Maintenance of In-Use Motor Vehicles – Mitigating Environmental impact

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Vijayanta Ahuja, Aditya Gautam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2427
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The existing rule no. 62 of CMVR, 1989 applies to various commercial vehicles and yet is unable to provide a promising template to have a concise format which will cover all the motor vehicles and their different components with more precise equipment plus virtual testing along with proper management of time during the bulk inspection of all the vehicles. This paper will include all the technicalities and the different course of actions which must be taken into account for the proper implementation of the desired regulations on the designated concern. The idea behind this paper is to have a compact procedural document for the periodical inspection and maintenance of all the motor vehicles running on the Indian Roads that adhere to the basic safety concerns of other on-road vehicles, the pedestrians and the surroundings. Concluding the fact that there are various aspects of environmental degradation henceforth we start by picking one of the hazards trying to execute a method to resolve every respective issue on a micro level, thus eliminating maximum threats onto the environment.…
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Seat Belt Dynamic Test Performance Sensitivity to Anchorage Location Tolerance of 50 mm

ICAT-Akshat Gupta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2398
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Seat Belt Assemblies used in a vehicle are tested and certified as per ECE R16/ IS 15140 for its performance during dynamic test. During validation test, seat belt anchorages are set-up as per design condition. The tolerance provided in the regulation for each anchorage is 50mm. Also there is difference in actual anchorage location in a vehicle and design location. This tolerance and variation can affect the performance of seat belt during the test or actual car accident. This study shows the variation of seat belt performance when different combination of anchorage locations is used within 50 mm.
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Potential for Emission Reduction and Fuel Economy with Micro & Mild HEV

AVL List GmbH-Franz Murr, Ernst Winklhofer, Michael Weissbaeck, Gerald Teuschl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2504
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas after treatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost.With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost- efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented test procedures. The focus will be on solutions which have potential for the Indian market, i.e. solutions which can be implemented with moderate application effort for currently available compact and medium size cars. The possibilities of 48V technologies for fuel economy and emission reduction will be discussed. Simultaneously, tools for testing and calibration at power train testbed as well as for on-road application will be presented.Furthermore, it…
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In-Depth Analysis of Additive-Treated Gasoline with a Modified HFRR Technique

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Afton Chemical Company, USA-William Colucci, Kristine Morel
Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc., USA-Edward Malisa, Joseph Russo, Andreas Glawar, John Mengwasser, Edward Nelson
  • Journal Article
  • 04-13-01-0002
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline fuel lubricity is key to reducing wear and energy losses from friction in engines. The High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test protocol recommended for gasoline fuels has been modified to evaluate the wear and friction properties of additized fuels. Adapted from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D6079 test for diesel lubricity and literature-based procedures developed for gasoline fuels, the protocol and hardware used in this study allow for differentiation of fuels with unique additive chemistries and varying additive treat rates (EPA-approved lowest additive concentration, LAC, or higher). Supplementing HFRR tests, measurements of acoustic emissions corroborate friction coefficient trends using different additized fuels. Anti-wear performance of fuels during engine tests was characterized by roller-follower pin wear and metal concentration in engine oil, further distinguishing LAC from alternate additized fuels. The engine tests and acoustic emissions measurements support HFRR observations that gasoline fuels with varying additive chemistries and concentrations can offer enhanced lubricity compared to fuels additized with basic LAC additized fuels.
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Hydraulic Motor Test Procedures

CTTC C1, Hydraulic Systems
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J746_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-20 by SAE International in United States

This test code describes tests for determining characteristics of hydraulic positive displacement motors as used on off-road self-propelled work machines as referenced in SAE J1116.

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Road Vehicles - Friction Materials - Finished Brake Pad Normalized Elastic Constant of Friction Material

Brake Linings Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3175_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-20 by SAE International in United States

This SAE standard specifies a method for testing and measuring a normalized elastic constant of brake pad assemblies using ultrasound. This document applies to disc brake pad assemblies and its coupons or segments used in road vehicles.

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Hydraulic Power Pump Test Procedure

CTTC C1, Hydraulic Systems
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J745_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-20 by SAE International in United States

This test code describes tests for determining characteristics of hydraulic positive displacement pumps used on off-road self-propelled work machines as referenced in SAE J1116.

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Simulation-Driven Model-Based Approach for the Performance and Fuel Efficiency Trade-Off Evaluation of Vehicle Powertrain

Universidade Federal de Campina Grande-Samuel Filgueira da Silva, Eisenhawer de Moura Fernandes, Wanderley Ferreira de Amorim Junior
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5085
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
The automobile manufacturers are currently facing a double challenge. While they must meet tight vehicle emission regulations established by the authorities, they also have to achieve the current market demands, which look towards fuel efficient vehicles for city driving, but still delivering high performance for unproblematic highway cycles.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of different axle ratios in the conflicting fuel economy versus acceleration performance trade-off. The article will present the modeling and simulation of a four-wheel-drive light-duty vehicle with six-speed automatic transmission subjected to three drive cycles: the FTP-72 (Federal Test Procedure) cycle, the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) cycle, and the 0-100 km/h acceleration cycle.The simulations were performed in MATLAB/Simulink® environment by using system modeling that incorporates powertrain components such as engine, transmission, torque converter, axle ratio, wheels, driveshaft, etc. The auto driver was implemented by the approximation of the commanded speed curves to the desired speed curves (driving cycles) using a controller subsystem.The vehicle model results aim to analyze the improvements generated by the optimal differential ratio in…
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