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Defining Fundamental Vehicle Actions for the Development of Automated Driving Systems

Royal Institute of Technology-Martin Törngren
Zenuity-Carl Zandén
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0712
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automated Driving Systems (ADSs) show great potential to improve convenience and effectiveness of our transport systems. Safety validation, prior to market launch, is however challenging due to the large number of miles required to gather enough evidence for a proven in use argumentation. Hence there is an ongoing search to find more effective ways of verifying and validating the safety of ADSs. One component of this search is refining the definition of the ADS. Both for the design and for the validation it is crucial to have a good understanding of the environment around the ADS (external conditions) and what the internal limitations of the ADS are. A natural way of characterising the external conditions is by modelling and analysing data from real traffic. Towards this end, we present a framework with the primary objective to completely model all the statistically significant actions that other vehicles conduct on motorways. Two categories of fundamental actions are identified by recognising that a vehicle can only move either longitudinally or laterally. The fundamental actions are defined in detail…
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Computation of Safety Architecture for Electric Power Steering System and Compliance with ISO 26262

Oakland University-Saif Salih, Richard Olawoyin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0649
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays and with the advancement of the automotive industry, functional safety has become one of the most significant challenges for autonomous and connected vehicles. The automotive industry is transforming from conventional driving technology where the driver or the human being is a part of the control loop to fully autonomous development and self-driving mode. The SAE levels of autonomy define level 4 by (These automated driving features will not require you to take over driving). Thus, more and more safety-related electronically controlled units ECUs are deployed in the control module of the vehicle. As a result, more complexity of system architecture, software, and hardware are interacting and interfacing which increases the risk of both systematic and random hardware failures. In order to reduce these risks and avoid any potential failure or loss of control, ISO 26262 was introduced and developed to guide the automotive original equipment manufacturer OEMs and suppliers to ensure an adequate and acceptable level of safety procedures are implemented. This study focuses on the EPS systems and their ASIL assignement. It was…
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Analysis of Vehicle Front Impact Pulse Severity in US NCAP

FCA US LLC-Jianping Wu, Yibing Shi, Brian Beaudet
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0986
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There have been multiple studies on the effect of vehicle impact pulses on occupant responses, and studies on the previous and current US NCAP (New Car Assessment Program) vehicle pulses. This paper analyzes 35 mph (56.3 kph) front impact vehicle impact pulses and occupant responses in US NCAP tests conducted by the NHTSA from 2011 to 2019. Based on the occupant response analysis, a simple generic occupant restraint force-relative displacement model has been created. This generic model captures the fundamental restraint characteristics of the vehicles in the recent years, and together with the vehicle pulse, they provide several occupant response predictors. Furthermore, this paper proposes a new pulse severity metric PSD based on the vehicle impact data statistics, and uses the pulse severity to compare with other pulse severity definitions. It explains the shortcomings of using the vehicle dynamic crush and TTZV as pulse severity metrics, and shows how improvements can be made with simple modifications. Data regression methods are used to assess relationships among different metrics and variables. The paper also provides statistics of…
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Improving the design and analysis of commercial bus structures using vehicle performance envelopes

Queen's University Belfast-Michelle McIlroy, Adrian Murphy, Damian Quinn, Trevor Robinson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0207
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A challenge in structural design is the inability to quickly assess how a change in use can affect the structural performance of the system. This is particularly important in the bus industry with multiple variations of one base product type for many customers. Thus for a single design there can be frequent changes to mission profiles or customer constraints, which must be considered within short time periods before production commences for a particular customer. This can often limit full understanding of the structural performance, key structural features or critical failure modes, ultimately limiting the potential for producing buses with minimum structural mass. The proposed method in this paper aims to develop a design tool capable of rapidly informing structural design engineers with respect to the structural limitations of various vehicle components using performance envelopes. Vehicle performance envelopes define the combination of global vehicle accelerations (lateral, vertical and longitudinal) that cause structural failure of any feature or component included in the envelope. Additionally, envelopes will enable definition of the critical (non-redundant) and redundant structural failure modes…
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Frequency Domain Loads Processing For Exhaust Systems

CAEfatigue, Ltd.-Neil Bishop
Eberspaecher Exhaust Technology GmbH-Philippe Leisten, Arnulf Spieth
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0180
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A previous SAE paper (2018-01-1396) introduced the concept of using the frequency domain for exhaust system analysis. During the intervening period (up until now) further benchmarks have confirmed the validity of the approach. This paper will present that data and also introduce a new technique which has been developed to create, from the originating road load data (RLD), the loads (or “cutting plane” loads) at different section of the exhaust system. Those loads can then be used to determine safety factors against the available part SN curves at any potential position desired. This advantage stands in opposition to predetermined strain gage positioning for measurement procedures. Another potential lies in a better definition of the loads applied form the exhaust system on typical supplier part, like flexpipes and thus allow a better design of those parts.
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What if the speed had been less? Causation with distance limited and time limited hazards.

Road Accident Analysis-John Searle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0881
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
ABSTRACT: WHAT IF THE SPEED HAD BEEN LESS? CAUSATION WITH TIME LIMITED AND DISTANCE LIMITED HAZARDS. With a path intrusion incident, it is almost always the case that the collision would have been avoided if the pedestrian had not run out, or if the vehicle on the minor road had stopped, or so on. However should the other party be thought to have been travelling at an excessive speed, often the reconstructionist is asked to make a calculation of what whether the collision would, at some alternative speed say equal to the speed limit, still have occurred. In that way causation is addressed. The paper distinguishes between those hazards which are distance limited and those which are time limited, giving definitions of the two types. Distance limited hazards are deterministic, but time limited hazards have a probabilistic basis. This difference has important implications for causation. For a hazard at a fixed distance, there is a well known formula for calculating whether the collision would have been avoided at a slower alternative speed. However a time…
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Headliner Trim Design Methodology Development with Finite Element Simulation and Optimization Considering Multi Domain Performance

Tata Technologies Ltd.-Ashish Sathaye, S. Vishnu, Suhas Patil, Prashant Banbare
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1099
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Passenger cars in the top segment have seen fast growth over the last few decades with an increasing focus on luxury, convenience, safety and the quality of driver experience. The Headliner is a decorative and functional trim system covering the underside of the roof panel. It enhances to the aesthetics and elegance of the car interiors. In premium vehicles, the headliner system has to suffice interior quietness and integrity apart from the performance and regulatory requirements. The Design Validation Plan requirements cover its contribution to the vehicle interior noise control, occupant safety, and perception of build quality. Contributions can be very significant and primarily be determined by design and material parameters. Also, Headliner interactions with an adjacent body in white structure is crucial from performance point of view. Various foam options are available with different functions such as structural, acoustic, and energy-absorption. Part thicknesses vary depending on the class of vehicle and respective demands. Foam locations and types greatly influences the proportional performance. Selection of each parameter in an efficient way is a critical task,…
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Electric motor for brakes – optimal design

Brembo Spa-Alessio Miotto
Politecnico di Milano-Antonino Di Gerlando, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0919
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A multi-objective optimal design of a brushless DC electric motor for a brake system application is presented. Fifteen design variables are considered for the definition of stator and rotor geometry, pole pieces and permanent magnets included. Target performance indices (peak torque, efficiency, rotor mass and inertia) are defined together with design constraints that refer to components stress levels and temperature thresholds, not to be surpassed after heavy duty cycles. The mathematical models used for optimization refer to electromagnetic field and related currents computation, to thermo-fluid dynamic simulation, to local stress and vibration assessment. An Artificial Neural Network model, trained with an iterative procedure, is employed for global approximation purposes. This allows to reduce the number of simulation runs needed to find the optimal configurations. Some of the Pareto-optimal solutions resulting from the optimal design process are analysed. They show high improvements of the performance indices with respect to a reference solution.
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new

CONNECTOR, RECEPTACLE, FLANGE MOUNT, ELECTRICAL, CIRCULAR, HIGH DENSITY, QUICK DISCONNECT, ENVIRONMENT RESISTING, INDIVIDUAL RELEASE, CRIMP TYPE CONTACTS (CLASS A, F, AND W - SERIES 4)

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS81511/51A
  • Current
Published 2020-03-19 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
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new

CONNECTOR ACCESSORIES, ELECTRICAL, TERMINATION, SHIELD SPLIT SUPPORT RING, COMPOSITE, NONENVIRONMENTAL, STRAIGHT, CATEGORY 7

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS85049/93C
  • Current
Published 2020-03-19 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available