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Parameter Optimization of Anti-roll Bar Based on Stiffness

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Zhenyu Wang, Donghua Guo, Haoyu Wang, Yifeng Jiang, Ming Li, Xiaoge Hou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0921
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Anti-rolling bar is an important structural part of the automobile, which can effectively prevent the automobile from rolling and improve the safety of the vehicle during bending. In the design of the current anti-rolling bar, the stiffness of anti-rolling is determined based on experience or oversimplified mathematic model. In this paper, an anti-rolling bar is determined by 7 parameters, and forces in different directions and perpendicular to the bar are applied at both ends. The mathematical model of stiffness of anti-rolling bar is established by combining the Deformation Energy Theorem and Castigliano Theorem. Nonlinear programming and genetic algorithm are used to acquire the optimal solution and corresponding values of parameters of the mathematical model. Then, by means of partial least-squares regression method, the correlation of different parameters to the stiffness of anti-rolling bar is analyzed. Besides, the stiffness of the anti-rolling bar is calculated by finite element method. On the experimental bench, the tensile and compressive tests were carried out on the equal-scale shrinking model of the bar, which verified the correctness of the influence…
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High Strain Rate Tensile Response of Caprine Muscle Tissue using Polymeric Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar

DBATU Lonere-Somnath Hanumant Kadhane
Dr. B.A. Technological University-Hemant Warhatkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0519
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Soft tissues such as muscles and skin in human body are exposed to varying strain rates under dynamic loading due to high speed automotive accidents. The prediction of impact-induced injuries during automotive accidents requires a thorough understanding of mechanical behaviour of soft tissues at high strain rates for accurate medical intervention and crash simulations. Studies on soft tissue responses under dynamic loading are limited in available literature. Uniaxial tensile tests at high strain rates (500 s-1- 4000 s-1) were conducted on caprine lower extremity muscles using polymeric tensile split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) apparatus. Polymeric bars were used in SHPB as impedance is closer to the soft tissues. The attenuation and dispersion in waves are corrected using isolated incident bar tests. The dynamic tensile test results show that stress-strain response is non-linear, concave upward and dependent on strain rate. These obtained results may further be used to develop finite element human body models and safety systems for human body in crash scenario.
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An Experimental Investigation of Axial Cutting Under a Tension Deformation Mode

Univ. of Windsor-Anthony Gudisey, William Altenhof, John Magliaro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0206
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The most common use of tension energy absorption is found in personal fall arrest systems, however, there exist a plethora of possible applications in the automotive field for both vehicular and roadside safety hardware. During a fall, cables attached to a safety harness must not exceed a maximum arresting force over an arresting extension. The main disadvantage of the current state of the art for fall arrest is that energy dissipation is a result of tearing and failure of fabric materials which causes erratic and fluctuating loads. Axial cutting; a novel energy dissipation mechanism developed by researchers at the University of Windsor, has been shown to minimize load fluctuations while maintaining a stable load. Its capabilities have been explored in compression, but no studies have been conducted in tension. A set of test specimens were chosen for this purpose based on predictions from analytical models. These specimens were circular extrusions made from AA6061 in both T4 and T6 temper conditions. They varied in diameter from 50.8 to 63.5mm, and varied in thickness from 1.25, 1.59…
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A New Approach to Comprehensive Modeling of Sheet Metal Tensile Test Data using a Universal Exponential Expression

University of Colorado Denver-Luis Sanchez Vega
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0751
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This work aims to providing an improved fit to continuously describe tensile test behavior over arbitrary quasi-static regression fit techniques. The tensile test, commonly defined by elastic, transient, and exponential regions, is represented here by a continuous curve spanning from the unstrained state to the post uniform regions. Since the model is continuous, proportionality and yield points between regions are not defined. This continuous behavior is described by an exponential expression defined in the logarithmic stress-strain coordinate system, from which the model fit is determined. In this logarithmic scale, we found that the data is bound by segments of concave and/or convex curvatures which end approach asymptotically towards straight lines. The coordinates of the fit in the logarithmic scale are defined at the intersection of the asymptotes, and the material fits are found from the optimum regression fit. The accuracy of the fit was validated at quasi-static speeds for four different sheet materials: cold rolled deep drawing quality, dual phase DP590, and dual phase DP780 steels, and an aluminum alloy AA6916. The fitting accuracies improved…
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Study the Influences of Weld Line on Mechanical Properties of Talc Filled PP

Ford Motor Company-Shiyao Huang, Patti Tibbenham, Lingxuan Su, Danielle Zeng, Jin Zhou, Xuming Su
Univ of Michigan-Ann Arbor-Mayme Philbrick
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1306
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Weld line can significantly reduce ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and fracture strain of talc filled PP. In this paper, two different injection molding tests were carried out. First, an injection mold with triangular inserts was built to study the influence of meeting angles on material properties at weld line region. Tensile samples were cut at different locations along the weld line on the injection molded plaques. The test results showed that both UTS and fracture strain increase when the sample locations are away from the weld line. This trend is attributed to different microstructures with respect to different meeting angles. Second, standard ASTM tensile bars with and without weld line were injection molded to identify the size of the weld line effect zone. A FEA model was built in ABAQUS, where the tensile sample was divided into two different regions, solid region and weld line effect region. Stress-strain relationships of the solid region were derived from tensile tests of solid bars, while the mechanical properties of weld line effect zones were characterized from samples with…
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Analysis of Sheet Metal Joining with Self-Piercing Riveting

Oakland Univ.-Sergey Golovashchenko
Oakland University-Srecko Zdravkovic
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0223
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been in production in automotive industry since early 1990s. A substantial amount of experimental work was traditionally required in order to find an appropriate combination of rivet and anvil design to satisfy the required joint parameters. Presented study is describing the methodology of numerical simulation of SPR process and its experimental validation for Aluminum alloys and steels. Among material properties, the required information for numerical simulation includes stress-strain curves validated for the range of strains taking place in SPR process (up to 2.0 of true strain for sheets and up to 0.4 of true strain for the rivet) and parameters of fracture model for all involved materials: all sheets in the stack and the rivet material. Experimental data on stress-strain curves for extended range of strains was obtained based upon multistep rolling tensile testing procedure for the sheet metals. Parameters of the fracture model for sheets were defined by custom hole expansion test, and the parameter of the fracture model for the rivet was defined via expanding the tubular portion of…
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A METHODOLOGY FOR FINITE ELEMENT MODELING ACCURATELY ACCOUNTING FOR CASE-HARDENED STEEL WITH CONTINUALLY VARIED HARDNESS READINGS

Valeo-Kapec-Zane Yang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0512
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Presented here is finite element modeling of steel plates within which mechanical properties varied dramatically from their outer surfaces towards inside cores. The necessity to develop such a methodology in finite element analysis arises from the fact that many plate-structured components serving in automobiles are often made from relatively low carbon steel whose high ductility are needed for metal-forming operations. In order to strengthen the loading capability, various forms of heat treatment can be applied to a formed component, such as carburizing, carbonitriding, or induction-hardening. As a result, that component can no longer be considered as being homogeneous in its mechanical properties. Developing a finite element model that will truly represent what can be characterized as laminates has a great significance in the community of computer-aid-engineering. The benefits of this methodology will be discussed by numerous case studies of a centrifugal pendulum that has gained its popularity in high-end passenger cars because of its superior vibration suppression. The pendulum will be subject to excessively and destructive load due to centrifugal force at extremely high angular…
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Development of a Novel Test System to Determine the Durability of RTV Gasket Material

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA)-Wensheng Zhang, Erich Gernand, Rohit Paranjpe
Oakland University-Bingxu Wang, Gary Barber, Na Lyu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1069
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes a laboratory-based test system and procedure for determining the durability of RTV sealant with fretting movement. A test machine is described in which shear and tensile stress-generating displacements at room temperature and temperature of 100°C are produced to load an RTV seal. The test system utilizes an air pressurized hollow cylinder with a cap sealed by RTV sealant on a reciprocating test rig. An external air leakage monitoring system detects the health of the tested RTV seal. When air leakage occurs, the seal is determined to have failed. RTV sealant used in the test was fully cured at room temperature and then aged with engine oil. In the experiments, a total of 6 displacements were used to generate cycle/amplitude graphs for both shear and tensile modes. Failures were determined to be caused by the loss of adhesion in tensile mode, and by crack nucleation due to the special step design in shear mode. The results have validated the feasibility of the proposed test system and procedure, which can be used for durability…
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Durability study of automotive additive manufactured specimens

Colorado Photopolymer Solutions-Amelia Davenport, Neil Cramer
Eastern Michigan Univ.-Forough Zareanshahraki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0957
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The long term weathering behavior of three different 3D printable, non-stabilized UV cure resin formulations (A and B with thiol-ene, and C with acrylate chemistry) was studied using tensile testing, nano-indentation, and photoacoustic infrared (PAS-FTIR) spectroscopy. To this end, type IV tensile bars were printed from each resin system using a DLP 3D printer, and were post UV-cured under a broad spectrum source. Systems A and C showed a similar trend after weathering - they first experienced an increase in modulus and tensile strength, likely due to additional crosslinking of the residual unreacted species. This increase in mechanical properties was followed by a drop in modulus, tensile strength, and percent elongation due to the over-crosslinking and consequent embrittlement. Sample B, however, showed remarkable retention of the mechanical properties before/after weathering. Nano-indentation results were in good agreement with the tensile properties, showing a similar trend in hardness variations. Although systems A and C outperformed system B in photooxidation performance, all three systems demonstrated promising results considering no hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) were used in the…
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Fuel tank dynamic strain measurement using computer vision analysis

Ford Motor Co.-Ram Krishnaswami
Fusion Engineering-Mark Fleming, Kunihiro Nakamoto PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0924
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Stress and strain measurement of high density polyethylene (HDPE) fuel tanks under dynamic crash loading is challenging. Motion tracking combined with computer vision was employed to evaluate the strain in a HDPE fuel tank being dynamically loaded with a crash pulse. Traditional testing methods such as strain gages are limited to the small strain elastic region and may exceed the range of the strain gage. In addition, strain gages are limited to a localized area and are not able to measure the deformation and strain across a discontinuity such as a pinch seam. Other methods such as shape tape may not have the response time needed for a dynamic event. Motion tracking data analysis was performed by tracking the motion of specified points on a fuel tank during a dynamic test. An HDPE fuel tank was mounted to a vehicle section and a sled test was performed on using Seattle sled to simulate a deltaV of 55 mph in 137 msec. Multiple target markers were placed on the fuel tank. The motion of these markers…